Given Array A of size n that contains all the integer values $[0,n]$ except one.
In this question we assume that the time we need to check one bit $j$ in number $A[i]$ is $O(1)$,and to check the number $A[i]$ is $O(\log n)$.
Find an algorithm that finds the missing number in $O(n)$.
So creating a trivial counter array and searching for a 0 count wouldn't help - it would be $O(\log n)$.
I also thought about counting the bits and finding the missing one, but that wouldn't help either.