A computation model in which the computation is described via circuits of various logic gates.

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How to find degree of polynomial represented as a circuit?

I know very little about arithmetic circuits, so maybe it is something well-known. Given a small circuit consisted of $\{1,x,-,+,*\}$ defining one variable polynomial. Let be additionally known that ...
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20 views

AC0 and first order logic equivalence

The page on descriptive complexity theory in Wikipedia states the following: "First-order logic defines the class FO, corresponding to AC0, the languages recognized by polynomial-size circuits of ...
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33 views

How to design xml schema for digital circuits? [closed]

how can i design XML Schema for logical and digital circuits? i cant find any help or manual for this work for example i have a digital circuits with AND OR NOR ,... gates now i want design xml ...
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38 views

NP-complete problems and sub-expenential sized circuits

If one were to show that an NP-complete problem had $2^{n^{O(1)/\log{\log{n}}}}$ circuit complexity, what would the consequences of this be?
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23 views

Simplifying circuits using boolean algebra

I am having a lot of trouble simplifying my circuit using boolean algebra. I am very new to this and any explanation would be greatly appreciated. I have y'+z+w'x+wx' I feel like I could use ...
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23 views

Is VHDL a description language for a Boolean circuit or are both concepts unrelated

I am looking for a way to translate basic c programs (subset of c or java or some declarative programming language) to a Boolean circuit. I know that Turing machines are reducible to Boolean circuits ...
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84 views

Create a shallow logic circuit that increments a binary number

This circuit should be reasonably efficient in size and depth, but with priority on depth. If depth was not a concern, then I guess I could make a specialized adder for the least significant bit and ...
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25 views

Circuits for Modular Arithmetic

I've read this which describes how to do do integer arithmetic in circuits. The one thing that it does not describe is how to do these operations with a modulus. How can modular arithmetic be done in ...
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29 views

How many size $s$ circuits from $\{0, 1\}^n \to \{0, 1\}$ are there? [closed]

For simplicity, we can assume that only NAND gates are allowed. An asymptotically correct solution is all I really need. Thanks!
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Implications of the $\Omega(\frac{2^n}{n})$ circuit lower bound being tight

There is a basic result in circuit complexity that says: There exists a language that cannot be solved with circuits of size $o(\frac{2^n}{n})$. The argument is a simple counting argument on the ...
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49 views

Assume that SAT ∈ PSIZE, does it imply that NP = coNP?

Assume that $\mathrm{SAT} \in \mathrm{PSIZE}$, does it imply that $\mathrm{NP} = \mathrm{coNP}$ ? I think that I've managed to show that if $\mathrm{SAT} \in \mathrm{PSIZE}$, then both $\mathrm{NP}$ ...
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Relation between logspace-uniform circuits and P-uniform circuits

In the book "Computational complexity" of Barak and Arora, on page 112, they state that: Theorem 6.15: A language has logspace-uniform circuits of polynomial size iff it is in P. The proof of ...
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38 views

What circuit depth is required to add?

If we suppose that we are given two numbers $a$ and $b$ to add, what circuit depth do we require to add them? I'm wondering if $a$ and $b$ are $O(n)$, and thus the amount of bits required to store ...
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61 views

Computing parity function on n variables with O(n) gates

Sipser example 9.29 He says: "one way to do so (compute the parity function with O(n) gates. One way to do so is build a binary tree that computes the XOR function, where the XOR function is the same ...
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1answer
70 views

Emulating boolean circuits using addition and multiplication (mod 5)

I'm trying to use gates that do addition and multiplication modulo 5 to emulate logic gates. Assuming false and true are mapped to 0 and 1 respectively (with 2, 3, and 4 being invalid), I figured out ...
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82 views

Modulo operation in monotone complexity

Given $x\in\Bbb N$, I would like to find $x\bmod N$, where $N$ is composite. For example $N=35$, $x=53$ and $x\bmod N=18$. Is this operation considered monotone in circuit/algebraic complexity ...
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70 views

Functional Unit and Micro-operations Schematics

I'm sitting an exam on Computer Architecture in a few days and i'm stuck on a particular type of question. I'm asked to: Provide a detailed schematic for a functional unti that implements the ...
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66 views

How to design this synchronous circuit?

I have seen this model question on synchronous circuit , but i could not understand the logic, can anyone please help me? "Develop the state diagram for a synchronous sequential circuit which will ...
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169 views

Can a Boolean circuit be considered an algorithm?

Can a Boolean circuit by itself be considered an algorithm (a single step algorithm if you like)? For instance say you have a simple tree circuit with two AND gates as the input gates feeding a single ...
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What is the exact difference between a latch & a flipflop?

From what I have understood : A Flip Flop is a clocked latch i.e. flip flop = latch + clock Latch continuously checks for inputs & changes the output whenever there is a change in input Flip ...
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132 views

Why S=1, R=1 Is forbidden in RS-Flip Flop [closed]

I have come across about RS Flip Flop & I have tried implementing that on a simulator & using actual logic gates. But I'm still not sure whether I have correctly understood the case unstable ...
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3answers
819 views

Why is the name half-adder used to represent the half-adder?

I have recently came across half-adders and full adders in my Logic Network lectures. I have somewhat understood the theory, but I am still unable to understand the reason why they called them in that ...
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274 views

How to understand the SR Latch

I can't wrap my head around how the SR Latch works. Seemingly, you plug an input line from R, and another from S, and you are supposed to get results in $Q$ and $Q'$. However, both R and S require ...
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PARITY using depth one TC0 circuit

I need to disprove that a PARITY gate can be simulated using a single MAJORITY gate, or even a ...
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63 views

How to relate circuit size to the running time of Turing machine

From http://rjlipton.wordpress.com/2009/05/27/arithmetic-hierarchy-and-pnp/, Define, $M_{[x,c]}$ as the deterministic Turing machine that operates as follows on an input $y$. The machine treats ...
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Definition of uniform boolean circuit

Definition A family of circuits $(C_{1}, C_{2}, \ldots)$ is uniform if some log space transducer $T$ outputs $\langle C_{n}\rangle$ where $T$'s input is $1^{n}$. (from ...
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What does “number of gates” mean in circuit complexity?

By "number of gates", I am wondering whether these gates include AND/OR gates that can receive several inputs or they just include AND/OR gates that receive two inputs.
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Formulas vs Circuits

In boolean circuit complexity, a circuit is just defined by a Directed Acyclic Graphs with designated input and output nodes, where the intermediate nodes compute a specific boolean function. A ...
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112 views

Simple lower bounds against AC0

It is known that $Parity \notin AC^0$ (nonuniform), but the proof is rather involved and combinatorial. Are there simpler, but weaker lower bounds, say for $NP \not \subseteq AC^0$ or $NEXP \not ...
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152 views

Which non-regular languages are in $AC^0$?

For example, I know that the non-regular language $a^nb^n$ is in $AC^0$. I would like to know more examples like this.
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70 views

Creating a logical circuit

Task: Design a 2 bit comparator. Input: 2x 2 bit (I take it as 2 2-bit values, let them be unsigned for simplicity) Output: 1 if result input1>input2 is true, 0 otherwise Develop truth table and ...
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163 views

Building functionally complete boolean circuits out of trinary logic

There are some not-very-commonly considered forms of trinary logic using 3 truth values. Even entire (unusual/rare) ternary computers have been built from it. Is there some knowledge or reference ...
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1answer
309 views

Circuit Satisfiability problem is NP-Hard?

$\newcommand{\np}{\mathsf{NP}}\newcommand{\cc}{\textrm{Circuit-SAT}}$I am having difficulty understanding the $\np$-hardness proof for $\cc$ in CLRS. $\cc = \{\langle C \rangle : C \text{ is a ...
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Assumption on weights in threshold circuits

A threshold gate implementing a linear threshold function on $n$ boolean inputs $x_1, x_2 \ldots, x_n$ is given by the equation: $w_1 x_1 + w_2 x_2 + \ldots, w_n x_n \ge t$ where $w_1, \ldots, w_n, t ...
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85 views

Universality of NOT and CNOT

I'm trying to figure out why NOT and CNOT gates are not sufficient to create all bijective functions in classical circuits. I have been struggling on this for hours, and just can't make sense of it. ...
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197 views

Circuit size for “at least n inputs are true”

Say you have $m$ boolean inputs, and you are given a threshold $n$. You need to construct a boolean circuit that evaluates to true if at least $n$ of the inputs true. You may use AND, OR, NOT, or XOR ...
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166 views

Depth-2 circuits with OR and MOD gates are not universal?

It is well-known that every boolean function $f:\{0,1\}^n\to \{0,1\}$ can be realized using a boolean circuit of depth 2 (over the variables, their negation and constant values) containing AND gates ...
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947 views

Universality of the Toffoli gate

Regarding the quantum Toffoli gate: is it classicaly universal, and if so, why? is it quantumly universal, and why?