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3
votes
1answer
17 views

Is there an alternative to full factorization for testing the Polya conjecture?

The Polya conjecture is a disproved conjecture that states over half the numbers less than any number has an odd number of prime factors. It first fails at $n = 906,150,257$, thus being a good example ...
3
votes
3answers
46 views

Complexity of finding factors of a number

I have come up with two simple methods for finding all the factors of a number $n$. The first is trial division: For every integer up to $\sqrt{n}$, try to divide by $d$, and if the remainder is $0$ ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

What is fastest algorithm for factoring out square from number

I have $n$-digit integer $N=a^2b$, $b$ is square-free. In other words, $a$ is maximal square which divides $N$. What is fastest known algorithm to find $a$? I can write algorithm of $O(n^2\sqrt{N})$ ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

Without primes in $P$ does integer factorization lie in $coNP$?

In integer factorization we ask 'Given $N$ is there a $a\in[2,\sqrt{N}+1]$ such that $a|N$?'. Is the above problem in coNP because we know primes is in $P$? That is there is no such factor $a$ of ...
10
votes
2answers
228 views

Why is FACTOR in Co-NP?

I'm having trouble wrapping my head around the problems PRIME, COMPOSITE, FACTOR and how they're related in terms of complexity. I understand that PRIME has been shown to be in $P$ by the AKS ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

What is more efficient: gcd(x,y) or brute force, when x and y are a very big numbers

I implemented the quadratic sieve algorithm as it's described in wiki. Most of the work of the algorithm is to determine if some big integer $Y$ belongs to the vector $b[b_1,b_2,b_3,\ldots]$. So far ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Why is not known whether integer factorization can be done in polynomial time knowing how to do primality tests efficiently?

First of all, I have just started studying computer science by myself and maybe I just need some clarification of what "polynomial time" means regarding the time complexity of an algorithm and ...
14
votes
2answers
991 views

Why is factoring large integers considered difficult?

I read somewhere that the most efficient algorithm found can compute the factors in $O(\exp((64/9 \cdot b)^{1/3} \cdot (\log b)^{2/3})$ time, but the code I wrote is $O(n)$ or possibly $O(n \log n)$ ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Consequences of factoring and discrete log in $P/Poly$

What is the consequence of factoring and discrete log being in $P/poly$?
2
votes
1answer
46 views

A factoring conversion

There was a comment here that " It is possible in principle to reduce the factorization of a $256$-bit number (which is computable in TFNP) to the Permanent on a matrix of dimension $N\times N$ where ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Devising an Algorithm for Linear Combination with Column Restrictions

Application: We intend to factor an integer $N$ using a variation of the rational sieve. This involves constructing a congruence of squares modulo $N$ from a set of linear relations $$x - N = y$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Does there exist a problem that is hard to do in parallel? [closed]

I am looking for a workload which is hard to paralellise/distribute between multiple machines. For example, integer factorization does not go 10 times faster if you have 10 machines to split the ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Integer factorization: comparing with floor

While working on integer factorization algorithm I came to the next problem: $$\frac{a}{ex} = \lfloor{\frac{a}{ex}\rfloor} + c$$ $a$ the number I want to factor $x$ factor of $a$ $e$ positive ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Finding three factors of a number with minimal sum

Suppose that we have a number $x \in \mathbb{Z}^+$. I am seeking an algorithm to find three numbers $a, b, c \in \mathbb{Z}^+$ such that $a \times b \times c = x$ and $a + b + c$ is minimum. Is this ...
1
vote
2answers
131 views

What is the complexity of finding the two prime numbers a composite number (used in RSA Protocol) is made of?

I am aware that as the number increases in Digits the process of locating the two prime numbers that when multiplied produce the given number is increased as well. I also know that is it somewhat ...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

Is FACTORIZATION or PRIMES known to be in LOGSPACE

Are the integer factorization and PRIMES known to be in LOGSPACE? Recently, it has been shown by researchers that PRIMES is in P. But this does not say anything about LOGSPACE since it is not known ...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

Does FACTORING have optimal substructure or analog to it?

Is there any approach to FACTORING that can leverage optimal substructure allowing the problem to be decomposed into smaller subproblems? That is, perhaps being unnecessarily verbose, until an easily ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

What are the current known implications of the complexity of Integer Factorization?

According to my limited knowledge we know that since Integer Factorization lies in the intersection of NP and co-NP it cannot be NP-complete unless NP=co-NP. However, do we know any other ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

efficient algorithms for factoring polynomials [closed]

Does anyone know what are the most efficient algorithms for factoring polynomials in a field of characteristic zero, i.e, a field that may contain infinitely many elements. I'm mainly concerned within ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Checking whether a number is a square or higher power modulo n

Is there an algorithm to check whether an integer $x$ is a square modulo $n$, where $n$ is an integer whose factorization we do not know? Is the Jacobi symbol helpful? What about higher powers, ...
0
votes
2answers
33 views

Proof for factors of a number

I was trying to prove the following: if x%(x/2) != 0 or x%(x/2) == 0 then x%(x/y) != 0 or x%(x/y) == 0 such that y = [2,4) So I am trying to figure out ...
3
votes
1answer
136 views

Complexity of factoring products of distinct prime numbers

Problem: Input is an integer number $x$ that we know factors as $p_{i_1}\cdot p_{i_2}\ldots p_{i_n}$, where the $p_{i_j}$'s are distinct prime numbers. Output is the above factorization of $x$. Do ...
2
votes
2answers
963 views

CNF Generator for Factoring Problems

I've been reading these: Fast Reduction from RSA to SAT CNF Generator for Factoring Problems (Also have C code implementation) I don't understand how the reduction from FACT to $3\text{-SAT}$ ...
3
votes
2answers
712 views

Shor's Algorithm speed

I'm a fledgling computer science scholar, and I'm being asked to write a paper which involves integer factorization. As a result, I'm having to look into Shor's algorithm on quantum computers. For ...
3
votes
1answer
243 views

integer factoring using Fermat's method

Reading an article on integer factorization I implemented the following - rather inefficient - factorization method: Every odd composite can be factored as a difference of squares: $$ ab = ...
3
votes
1answer
213 views

Are there problems that are polynomial-time equivalent to factoring composites?

It seems that factoring a number known to be composite is in its own interesting little complexity class, e.g. polynomial time using quantum computing even though no one has proved $\mathsf{P} = ...
5
votes
1answer
166 views

How hard is factoring a complex number?

Given complex number $C=a+ib$, I want to find two complex numbers $C_1=x+iy$ and $C_2=z+iw$ such that $C=C_1*C_2$ (a,b,x,y, z and w are all non zero integers). This problem is at least as hard as ...
5
votes
0answers
324 views

Time complexity of finding the largest factor of a number (using a specific oracle)

My question is related to this question posted on math.SE: Given an odd number, what is the quickest (constant-time) algorithm for finding its largest factor and suppose you can call a helper ...
4
votes
1answer
803 views

Generating 3SAT circuit for Integer factorization example

I read somewhere that 3SAT can be used to solve Integer Factorization. If that is true, could someone teach me a simple example of generating the 3SAT by using a small number? Let's say you are given ...
2
votes
0answers
89 views

Karp reduction between FACTORING and a variant of it

Consider the following variant of the FACTORING problem (given N,M decide whether N has a prime factor less than M): MULTIPLE-FACTORING: Given three integers $1 \leq K \leq M \leq N$ decide if there ...
2
votes
2answers
280 views

Solve Integer Factoring in randomized polynomial time with an oracle for square root modulo $n$

I'm trying to solve exercise 6.5 on page 309 from Richard Crandall's "Prime numbers - A computational perspective". It basically asks for an algorithm to factor integers in randomized polynomial time ...
6
votes
1answer
124 views

How hard is it to factorize sum of two numbers

Say I have numbers with known factorizations $n = \prod \limits _i p_i ^{n_i}$ and $m = \prod \limits _i p_i ^{m_i}$ (where $p_i$ is the $i$th prime). How hard is it to factorize $m+n$? Is there a ...
3
votes
2answers
249 views

Number of digits in a binary product

Assume i have 2 numbers in binary form (or, more precisely, assume to know the number of their digits, DF1, DF2): 101010101001010101010101010111111111111111111111010101 10101111111111111111010101 Is ...
2
votes
2answers
83 views

Optimization-factoring $\le_p$ Decision-factoring

Optimization factoring: Input: $N\in \mathbb{N}$ Output: All prime factors of $N$ Decision factoring: Input: $N, k\in \mathbb{N}$ Output: True iff $N$ has a prime factor of at most $k$ How can I ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

How can P =? NP enhance integer factorization

If ${\sf P}$ does in fact equal ${\sf NP}$, how would this enhance our algorithms to factor integers faster. In other words, what kind of insight would this fact give us in understanding integer ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Reducing the integer factorization problem to an NP-Complete problem

I'm struggling to understand the relationship between NP-Intermediate and NP-Complete. I know that if P != NP based on Lander's Theorem there exists a class of languages in NP but not in P or in ...
11
votes
1answer
355 views

Can top SAT-solvers factor easy numbers?

Modern SAT-solvers are very good at solving many real-world examples of SAT instances. However, we know how to generate hard ones: for instance use a reduction from factoring to SAT and give the RSA ...
2
votes
2answers
684 views

Is it possible to use dynamic programming to factor numbers

Let's say I am trying to break all the numbers from 1 to N down into their prime factors. Once I have the factors from 1 to N-1, is there an algorithm to give me the factors of 1 to N using dynamic ...