Questions related to formal languages, grammars, and automata theory

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0
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1answer
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Does every language that fulfills the regular Pumping conditions also fulfill the context-free ones?

Let L be a language that fulfills the properties implies by the Pumping lemma for regular languages. Does L necessarily fulfill the corresponding properties of the Pumping lemma for context-free ...
-2
votes
1answer
20 views

How to convert this type of languages to Context Free grammar?

As I've already asked my Question about the solving Context Free Grammar $L = \{a^n b^m c^p \mid n = m + p + 2\}$ Can this language be defined by a Context Free Grammar? Now i have just changed ...
20
votes
6answers
15k views

How to prove a language is regular?

There are many methods to prove that a language is not regular, but what do I need to do to prove that some language is regular? For instance, if I am given that $L$ is regular, how can I prove that ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Construction of NPDA with inequality check [duplicate]

I'm currently struggling to construct a nondeterministic PDA with an amount of states in $O(n)$ that accepts the following language: $L = \{wcx \, | \, w,x \in \{a,b\}^n \land w \not= x\}$ with c ...
1
vote
0answers
143 views

Constructing a Context Free Grammar for checking non-equality of strings [duplicate]

I have been studying the book Introduction to Computation by Michael Sipser on my own, and I'm stuck on this exercise from the chapter on Pushdown Automato and Context-Free Languages. The exercise is ...
2
votes
2answers
125 views

Can this language be defined by a Context Free Grammer?

I was solving one of my practice questions, defining a language with Context Free Grammar Productions , but I am stuck on one question , Here are my attempt: Question: $L = \{a^n b^m c^p \mid n = m + ...
-1
votes
0answers
41 views

Is this language CFL or not? [closed]

I have a question to find out that $L = \{a^{4k} b^l a^k\mid k\geq0, l\geq1 \} + \{a^i b^j\mid i\ne j\}$ is context free or not. I don't know from where to start solving it. I know that CFL's are ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Proving that a set of grammars for a given finite language is decidable [duplicate]

Let the language $$L = \left\{ \langle G \rangle \ |\ L(G) = \{1,\ldots , 1000\}, \text{ G is a CFG }\right\}$$ Prove that $L \in R$. Well, I think that for a start we need to check whether or ...
4
votes
3answers
103 views

Does Thompson's algorithm produce optimal NFAs?

I'm using Thompson's algorithm to convert from a regular expression to a NFA. Is Thompson's algorithm guaranteed to always output a minimal NFA, i.e., a NFA with the smallest possible number of ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Are DCFLs closed under concatenation with a regular language?

I have found various opinions saying they are (a link to one is given in D.W.'s comment). However, a proof that DCFLs themselves are not closed under concatenation found here on StackExchange seems to ...
0
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1answer
59 views

$L = \{x\#x^R \mid x\in\{0,1\}^* \} $ not accepted by a queue automaton?

It can be proven that class of languages accepted by queue automata is equal to class of languages accepted by Turing machines. It was mentioned somewhere that the language $$L = \{x\#x^R \mid ...
5
votes
2answers
256 views

Is an inverse homomorphism always a homomorphism?

Given a homomorphism $h: \Sigma \rightarrow \Delta^*$ such that e.g. $\forall a \in \Sigma: h(a) = \delta$, where $\delta \in \Delta$ (i.e. all symbols from the alphabet $\Sigma$ have the same image ...
0
votes
2answers
42 views

How does this Turing machine accept $a^n b^n$?

I'm reading this tutorial from the University of Illinois about Turing Machines, and I don't understand something. They give a pseudocode algorithm for an machine that accepts strings from the ...
4
votes
1answer
142 views

DFA for a strings whose every subsequence of length five has at least two zeroes

I have a regular language consisting of such {0,1}^k sequences, in which every subsequence of length 5 has at least two 0's in ...
29
votes
1answer
6k views

Language theoretic comparison of LL and LR grammars

People often say that LR(k) parsers are more powerful than LL(k) parsers. These statements are vague most of the time; in particular, should we compare the classes for a fixed $k$ or the union over ...
0
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0answers
57 views

The pumping lemma - Proving that this language is NOT context free

I would like to find out if this language is context free or not: $\qquad L=\{a^{i}b^{j}c^{k} \mid i<j,i+2j+3<k\}$. I've tried to apply the pumping lemma taking out $w=a^n b^{n+1}c^{3n+6}$ ...
-5
votes
1answer
27 views

Is $Σ^∗$ finite? [closed]

Suppose $Σ=\{0,1\}$; then $Σ^*$ is all combinations of $Σ$. So my question: is $Σ^*$ finite?
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Context free grammar for this language [duplicate]

Is this language Context Free? $L=\{a^{n+3} b^{2m} \mid n \neq m \}$ I think that I could split the languages into $L_1$ and $L_2$ with the conditions $n<m$ and $n>m$, provide 2 CF grammars ...
0
votes
3answers
40 views

Construct Turing Machine which accepts the language $ww$

I try to construct a TM that accepts the language $\{ ww \mid w \in \{a,b\}^* \}$. Between the words $w$ is no delimeter, so I don't know, how my TM can know where the first $w$ ends and the second ...
-2
votes
0answers
24 views

Finite State Automata construction problem [duplicate]

Can anybody explain me how to construct deterministic finite automata for these languages: $L = \{ xwx^R \mid x, w \in \{a,b\}^+ \}$ where $x^R$ is the reverse of string $x$. $L = \{ (1^k)y \mid y = ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Using the pumping lemma to prove that a language is context-free [duplicate]

I am new to automata theory. Could you give me a little hand with the correct use of the pumping lemma? I understand now how to proof a language is not context-free, but how do I use the pumping ...
5
votes
1answer
148 views

What are appropriate isomorphisms between formal languages?

A formal language $L$ over an alphabet $\Sigma$ is a subset of $\Sigma^*$, that is, a set of words over that alphabet. Two formal languages $L$ and $L'$ are equal, if the corresponding sets are ...
0
votes
0answers
103 views

What is the limit for Turing machines with 2 states and 3 symbols that halt?

I read here that a proof has been offered that a Turing Machine with 2 states and 3 symbols can be universal (in that it is capable of arbitrary finite computations). Even if this proof is accepted, ...
0
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0answers
107 views

For which subset of all CFG can we show that $L=\mathcal{L}(G)$

Raphael explained in the comments that there are no algorithms to show $L=\mathcal{L}(G)$ for context-free grammar. So we have to reduce our expectations and try to find a proof method. In this ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

How to show that L = L(G)?

Specifying formal languages by giving formal grammars is a frequent task: we need grammars not only to describe languages, but also to parse them, or even do proper science. In all cases, it is ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Prove this language is not CFL [duplicate]

I have this language: $L = \{a^{n+2} b^m a^{2n} b^{3n}\mid n,m >=0 \}$ and I am trying to prove that it is not CFL. I assumed that my word is $a^{p+2} b^m a^{2p} b^{3p}$ (where $p$ is the pumpung ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

How can I prove this language is not CFL? [duplicate]

I have a question to find out that $L = \{a^m b^n\mid n>0, m - is prime \}$ is CFL or not. I know that it is not a CFL. But I don't know how to prove that. I know how to prove that $L = \{a^m\mid m ...
4
votes
2answers
85 views

Method for measuring the 'similarity' between FSA grammars?

I'm working with a pattern matching algorithm that generates an acyclic finite state automaton that accepts a given text string and all its substrings. The FSA algorithm is being run on a symbolic ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Is the language $L=\{a^{2^{n}} \mid$ n is a natural number$\} $ context free?

I have to determine, and prove, whether the language $L=\{a^{2^{n}} \mid$ n is a natural number$\}$ is context free or not (if it is by a grammar and not by the pumping lemma). I tried to construct ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

show that language $L'$ is regular (given $L$ regular)

I am working on the following question: $L$ is regular. Show that $L'=\{x|\exists y,z,\ xyz\in L\wedge |x|=|y|=|z|\} $ is also regular. Firstly I show my idea. When you accept it I will try to ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

How to prove that the language { ww | w ∈ {a,b}* } is / isn't context free? [duplicate]

Is the language { ww | w ∈ {a,b}* } context free? I have tried to create a pushdown automaton but I didn't find any solution. I think you need a queue and not a stack. Is there a way to prove this ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Irregularity of L = {a^i b^(j+3)| i!=j }

I have a question to find out that $L = \{a^i b^{j+3}\mid i\ne j \}$ is regular or not. I know that it is not regular. I tried with pumping lemma but I am finding just a specific number of $v$'s in $u ...
-1
votes
1answer
71 views

Infinite u decidable languages [closed]

I am trying to see if infinite languages are always decidable. I believe it is not always decidable because there will not be a maximum length of string for the Turing machine to halt. Am I on the ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

How to convert CFG with Kleene Star, Kleene Plus, and Question Mark to Chomsky Normal Form?

I am fairly new to formal language theory but understand how to convert simple CFGs into both Chomsky normal form and Greibach normal form. However, I have not seen any examples of how to do that when ...
-2
votes
1answer
31 views

Formal Languages and Automata Theory [duplicate]

How can I show that $L = \{a^m b^n \mid (m > n \text{ or } m < n) \text{ and } m, n ≥ 1\}$ is not a regular language.
0
votes
1answer
26 views

How to read this inductive language definition?

A language $L$ is defined recursively according to the following rules: $λ ∈ L$ If $w ∈ L$, then $bw ∈ L$ and $waa ∈ L$ I am not sure if strings from this language should mix from this definition. ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

How to use homomorphisms to prove irregularity [duplicate]

I'm a bit confused on how to use homomorphims to prove irregularity or to prove that a language is not context free. This is what I'm currently thinking: Example 1: Let $L = \{ a^{i}b^{j}c^{k} : i ...
-2
votes
1answer
22 views

Union of two languages [closed]

If I have these languages: $$\begin{align*} S&=\{a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h\}\\ A&=\{b,g\}\\ B&=\{a,b,c,d,f,h\}\\ C&=\{a,c,g\}\,, \end{align*}$$ Writing $X'$ for the complement of a set $X$, ...
-1
votes
1answer
62 views

Determine if the language is $R$

Consider the following language: $$L = \{ \langle M \rangle \ |\ M \text { is a TM that decides the halting problem} \}$$ determine whether or not the language is in $R$. Now, from my ...
6
votes
1answer
50 views

Smallest class of automata model whose corresponding language class contains CFL and is closed against (dis)allowing nondeterminism in the model

From a comment, an interesting question popped up. The class of CFLs (the languages recognized by PDAs) are obviously not closed under nondeterminism - what I mean by this is that deterministic PDAs ...
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votes
0answers
20 views

regular expression for string [duplicate]

What will be the regular expression of string containing no. Of 0s and 1s odd over the set{0,1}* It should accept all the strings generated by odd no. Of 0s and 1s combination For exampke if i say ...
8
votes
0answers
56 views

Machines for context-free languages which gain no extra power from nondeterminism

When considering machine models of computation, the Chomsky hierarchy is normally characterised by (in order), finite automata, push-down automata, linear bound automata and Turing Machines. For the ...
6
votes
4answers
263 views

Relationship between formal system and formal languages

In a course of computer science it is common to study the hierarchy of formal languages, grammars, automata and Turing machines. I wonder what is the relationship of these objects with formal systems. ...
0
votes
3answers
61 views

Reduction and decidability

Consider the following language: $$ L = \{ \langle M \rangle \ |\ M \text { accepts } w \text { whenever it accepts } w^R \}$$ I am trying to understand the following proof that this language $L$ is ...
1
vote
2answers
90 views

Tips for creating “Context Free Grammar” [duplicate]

I am new to CFG's, Can someone give me tips in creating CFG that generates some language For example $L =\{ w v w^R \mid v,w\in \{a,b\}^*\wedge|v| \text{ is even } \}$, where $w^R$ is the reverse ...
7
votes
1answer
95 views

Is the closure of P under e-free homomorphisms equal to NP?

The context free languages can be obtained as the closure of the Dyck language under the cone operations. The Dyck language $D_2$ is a deterministic context free language, and the cone operations ...
1
vote
2answers
94 views

Proving that any CF language over a 1 letter alphabet is regular

I would like to prove that any context free language over a 1 letter alphabet is regular. I understand there is Parikh's theorem but I want to prove this using the work I have done so far: Let L be a ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Context-free with single terminal symbol — regular language [duplicate]

I have the following problem to solve: Show that if G is a context-free grammar and Σ consists of just one terminal symbol, then L(G) is regular. It is problem 4.26 from the book "Formal models of ...
46
votes
5answers
17k views

How to prove that a language is not context-free?

We learned about the class of context-free languages $\mathrm{CFL}$. It is characterised by both context-free grammars and pushdown automata so it is easy to show that a given language is ...
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votes
1answer
48 views

Is the language given by this CFG regular? [duplicate]

S → AB | C A → aAb | ab B → cBd | cd C → aCd | aDd D → bDc | bc How can I prove that this language is regular or not? I need your help. It also has two ...