Questions related to mathematical logic and its use in computer science

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Intuition behind F-algebra

I looked at here for getting an intuition about F-algebra, but I am still left with some questions. Suppose I have a group signature as $\Sigma= (* : X \times X \rightarrow X, \thicksim: X ...
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Parameterized complexity of Weighted Satisfiability with few variable occurrences

Given an integer $k$ and a Boolean CNF Formula $\phi$, Weighted Satisfiability asks whether $\phi$ is satisfiable by a model of weight $k$, i.e., a model that sets at most $k$ variables to true. This ...
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m-functions in Turing's paper “On Computable Numbers and applications…”

I was reading Alan Turing's paper "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem". I was reading well until I encountered "4. Abbreviated Tables", page 235-236, where Turing ...
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25 views

Formalizing self-propagating behaviour

Since reading Ken Thompson's Reflections on Trusting Trust I am trying to formalize the idea of a program which mutates its own behaviour; specifically, a program that would be self-reproducing except ...
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1answer
25 views

If in all satisfying assignments all pair of variables can take all possible values is this tautology?

I suppose this is both easy and false. Let $\phi$ be propositional boolean formula on variables $x_1 \ldots x_n$. Suppose in all satisfying assignments of $\phi$, all pairs of variables $(x_i,x_j),i ...
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1answer
20 views

Undecidable definition of pure function?

I am trying to come up with a formal definition for functional purity in a simple programming language (think JavaScript). What I've got so far is this: DEFINITION: A statement is impure if ...
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1answer
30 views

What is the rigorous definition of an efficient algorithm that $\epsilon-refutes$ random 3CNF formulas

I recently asked a similar What does "refuting random 3CNF" formulas mean?, however, I'd like to address it in a more mathematically precise setting. In that paper, on page 5, it talks ...
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What is the exact difference between kripke structures and transition systems?

Depending on the exact definition of a kripke structure and a transition system, they seem to be pretty much the same thing - is this true? To be more specific - though i found differing definitions ...
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62 views

What does “refuting random 3CNF” formulas mean?

Intuitively, recall what 3CNF formulas mean: Its a boolean formula with conjunctive normal form (i.e. formula of ANDs of clauses with ORs) with no more than three variables per conjunct. I was ...
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1answer
18 views

Are there two kinds of polynomial hierarchy collapses?

It seems to me that there are two different situations which get called ``PH collapse", (1) That $\exists i \geq 1$ s.t $\Sigma_i ^p = \Sigma_{i+1}^p$ (2) That $\exists i \geq 1$ s.t $\Sigma_i^p = ...
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2answers
38 views

Curry Howard correspondence and Church-Turing thesis

Curry-Howard correspondence states the equivalence between logic/deduction and types/programs. The Church-Turing thesis states the equivalence of some models of computation. Specifically, all ...
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1answer
297 views

Why is automated theorem proving impossible?

As far I know, in general case there is no Turing machine which could get any theorem on its input and produce its proof on its output. Why is it so?
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4answers
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Can I use ellipses in first order logic

I ask, because I have to come up with a first-order logic sentence that shows that there are exactly N objects in the universe. What I've been able to come up with is: $$ \forall x \; \exists y_1, ...
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3answers
171 views

How was the ALU implemented in the first computer (i.e., Babbage's analytical engine)?

I've seen circuit level implementations of ALU's before, but how are NOT/AND/ADD performed mechanically?
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1answer
52 views

Given a set of LTL formulas, on which states does the Kripke structure hold? [closed]

I'm currently learning about LTL and CTL formulas and to get a better understanding I try to manually interpret the formulas over a given Kripke structure. Since I'm not 100% sure if my results are ...
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33 views

Algorithm for scheduling timetable for student management system

I am developing the timetable module for a student management system. I am finding it difficult to design/develop it. It can be assumed that a given teacher is capable of teaching any standard whether ...
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1answer
22 views

Digital Logic Settle Time

I have an exam tonight and I'm reviewing my midterm exam. I got this question completely wrong, with no solution given. ...
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Efficiently decidable logics

So propositional logic (PL) is efficiently (in P) decidable because I can convert formulas to an equisatisifiable CNF-formula, negate and convert (efficiently, by De Morgans laws) to DNF. I can then ...
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2answers
41 views

The use of modal logic in computer science [closed]

I have a tentative understanding of modal logic. Can anyone explain modal logic as it is used in computer science?
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318 views

DNF to CNF conversion: Easy or Hard

In relation to the thread CNF to DNF — conversion is NP Hard (and a related Math thread): How about the other direction, from DNF to CNF? Is it easy or hard? On Page 2 of this paper, they seem to ...
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1answer
68 views

A logic function that is true iff the first operand is less than the second operand

In my computer organization class I have been given a series of problems. One I'm stuck on currently is below: Assume that $X$ consists of 4 bits, $x_3 x_2 x_1 x_0$, and $Y$ consists of 4 bits, ...
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1answer
49 views

If $F$ is valid then $F \cup \{res(C_1,C_2,A_i)\}$ is valid

I have to prove the following problem in propositional logic: Let $F$ be a set of clauses and let $F' = F \cup \{res(C_1,C_2,A_i)\}$ be the extension of $F$ by a resolvent of some clauses $C_1,C_2 ...
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1answer
75 views

Abstract algebra and programming languages

Quite often, I stumble upon abstract algebra concepts like initial algebra, free algebra, and similar while reading papers on programming languages. For instance, in papers on algebraic data types, ...
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68 views

Finding a Hoare logic correctness proof for a Repeat-Until loop

How can we prove a program in repeat until using Hoare Logic? I've found a rule like this: {P} S {R}, {R ^ ~B -> P}, {R ^ B -> Q} for ...
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2answers
79 views

Skolemization with multiple arguments — how to unify

Edit: answerers keep finding (valid!) problems with my example. I'll try again. The older version is below the horizontal line. Thanks to Klaus below for pointing out the last problem. My ...
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2answers
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What do we gain by having “dependent types”?

I thought I understood dependent typing (DT) properly, but the answer to this question: Why was there a need for Martin-Löf to create intuitionistic type theory? has had me thinking otherwise. ...
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Solving Subproblem in Logic (first-order, propositional, pddl)

One sentence question Is there any algorithm able to prove (solve) a logic problem (first-order, propositional, pddl) by finite induction? Background I am researching Hierarchical planning solvers ...
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1answer
201 views

What's the purpose of ANDing a bit mask with all bits set to a value?

I'm adapting an algorithm for calculating a CRC 16-bit CCITT (XModem) value from an ASCII input. I've found some code here. I'm using the function the poster has in his question, but I've noticed at ...
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1answer
21 views

Unification — removing equations and updating the solution

This question is concerned with the first order unification. Suppose I have a set $D$ of equations and a solution to these equations. Let this solution be a set $S$ of substitutions. Now, suppose I ...
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3answers
154 views

Combinational Logic - Need help with proof by rewrite

In my Computer Logic class we were assigned the following problem: Complete a truth table that has $3$ inputs $(A, B,C)$ and one output $(F)$. $F$ is asserted whenever $B$ or $C$ are ...
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1answer
49 views

Can a propositional threshold connective be expressed by standard connectives?

We are given a finite set of propositional atoms $\{x_1, \dots, x_n\}$ and an integer $k$. Can we capture through a propositional formula $\varphi$ (built from the standard connectives $\neg, \wedge, ...
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2answers
54 views

Logical Reduction

Reducing one computable problem to another by providing an algorithm which transforms an instance of one problem to one of the other (and limiting the time or space of that algorithm) is clear to me. ...
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1answer
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CTL - model checking for formula $A [a \cup b]$

I'm trying to verify if the following model satisfy $A [a \cup b]$: The algorithm I'm using is taken from "Concepts, Algorithms, and Tools for Model Checking", Joost-Pieter Katoen. In particular I ...
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What are the fundamental principles/algorithms on the process of equation solving?

I have seen a lot of solvers that are capable of, for example, getting an equation such as x ^ 2 + x = 12 and finding x = [3, -4]. I know some of them are implemented by hardcoding special cases. For ...
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1answer
57 views

CTL vs LTL - when a formula satisfy a model

I'm trying to understand the difference between LTL and CTL. In particular, i'm trying to understand when a model (a transition system eg. Kripke structure) satisfy a formula. This is my point of ...
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2answers
101 views

Show this is a tautology without using a truth table

I am doing a homework assignment and I've been stuck on this question for a long time now. The question says to prove this equation is a tautology without using a truth table. I assume we have to use ...
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1answer
51 views

Defining a new operator in CTL

Lets consider a new operator $B$ where $a B b$ means "in every execution, if $b$ holds some time, then $a$ does so before it" and we're asked to define it in CTL. My working: the system can only ...
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45 views

Formulating an arrangement problem with STRIPS

The problem is rearranging furniture in a flat. We are given rectangular rooms of natural width and height with doors between them, (the walls have no width) and rectangular furniture at starting ...
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1answer
53 views

Defining a new (informal) operator in CTL

If you were given a "new operator" Wh and a formula a Wh b meaning that a holds for at least as long as b does (in all executions). How would you define this operator in CTL? This is an exercise ...
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53 views

Simplifying a boolean expression

I need to prove: XY+~XZ+YZ=XY+~XZ I cannot think how to do this. I have tried factorising, but I just don't know of any rule that removes one of the terms like above. I start with the LHS, ...
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2answers
106 views

Some slight confusion with the UNTIL operator in CTL (e.g. a U b)

I've sketched a very small transition system in paint that I'll use as an example. I want to see if $A(aUb)$ holds for this transition system. From my understanding, this CTL formula is asking if ...
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2answers
137 views

Is Karnaugh Map possible for Maxterms?

I read about Minterms i.e. sums of products, simplification using Karnaugh Graph. Can this graph be used for Maxterms, i.e. products of sums, as well? If yes, then how? If not, then is there some ...
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Given this transition system, for which states are these (very basic) LTL formulas fulfilled?

I missed a lot of lectures for this module due to surgery so I'm trying to teach it to myself now. This is the question I've been working on: First of all, would I be correct in saying that the LTL ...
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Can someone clarify this unification algorithm?

I've been having trouble understanding a unification algorithm for first order logic, as I don't know what a compound expression is. I googled it, but found nothing relevant. I also don't know what a ...
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3answers
116 views

Turing Machine That Accepts Machines With Undecidable Languages

So I'm reviewing my Computability notes for my final, and I understand how reduction arguments work, but I'm having trouble framing one for the following Turing machine: Undecidable TM = { ⟨M⟩ | L(M) ...
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Open Standard Prolog Knowledge Bases [closed]

Are there any standard Prolog knowledge bases available anywhere that have the same purpose as Cyc, namely to encode generally accepted common sense and human knowledge? Typically containing ...
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Resolution refutation [closed]

This is an assignment so I don't want the answer, just maybe a push in the right direction. The question is: Suppose you are given an algorithm $R$ that can test for any propositional formula in ...
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SMT solves with functions for free varibles

So this sounds like this might lead to an undecidable theory but I thought I would give it a try and ask about it after I found nothing on the subject. I am somewhat interested in finding functions ...
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1answer
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Is the extension of every undecidable theory undecidable?

While it is not the case that the extension of every decidable theory is decidable, is it true that: the extension of every undecidable theory undecidable? In other words, given an undecidable ...
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Underlying language to specify various types of logic

There exist several different types of logic -- 1st order, 2nd and higher order with many different sets of inference rules possible. What I'm having trouble understanding is what's the "underlying ...