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A related problem is: given the set of $N$ strings, compute a data structure that allows us to quickly find the closest one in the set to any given string (under edit distance as our measure of "closeness"). There is lots of theoretical work on this problem, e.g., using BK-trees, Levenshtein automata, and many other techniques. See especially http://cs.stackexchange.com/q/2093/755Efficient map data structure supporting approximate lookup and https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/4165/5038 for an entry into the literature.

A related problem is: given the set of $N$ strings, compute a data structure that allows us to quickly find the closest one in the set to any given string (under edit distance as our measure of "closeness"). There is lots of theoretical work on this problem, e.g., using BK-trees, Levenshtein automata, and many other techniques. See especially http://cs.stackexchange.com/q/2093/755 and https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/4165/5038 for an entry into the literature.

A related problem is: given the set of $N$ strings, compute a data structure that allows us to quickly find the closest one in the set to any given string (under edit distance as our measure of "closeness"). There is lots of theoretical work on this problem, e.g., using BK-trees, Levenshtein automata, and many other techniques. See especially Efficient map data structure supporting approximate lookup and https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/4165/5038 for an entry into the literature.

5 replaced http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/ with https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/
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A related problem is: given the set of $N$ strings, compute a data structure that allows us to quickly find the closest one in the set to any given string (under edit distance as our measure of "closeness"). There is lots of theoretical work on this problem, e.g., using BK-trees, Levenshtein automata, and many other techniques. See especially http://cs.stackexchange.com/q/2093/755 and http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/4165/5038https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/4165/5038 for an entry into the literature.

A related problem is: given the set of $N$ strings, compute a data structure that allows us to quickly find the closest one in the set to any given string (under edit distance as our measure of "closeness"). There is lots of theoretical work on this problem, e.g., using BK-trees, Levenshtein automata, and many other techniques. See especially http://cs.stackexchange.com/q/2093/755 and http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/4165/5038 for an entry into the literature.

A related problem is: given the set of $N$ strings, compute a data structure that allows us to quickly find the closest one in the set to any given string (under edit distance as our measure of "closeness"). There is lots of theoretical work on this problem, e.g., using BK-trees, Levenshtein automata, and many other techniques. See especially http://cs.stackexchange.com/q/2093/755 and https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/4165/5038 for an entry into the literature.

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Tips on posing a good question

In the future, please try to include all relevant information in the question, such as the approximate value of important parameters (like $T$).

For future reference, if the answer to part of your question can be found in the obvious page on Wikipedia, that is a sign that you haven't done enough research before asking. Please do more research before asking. This will help you ask a better question, and increase the likelihood that answers will be useful to you.

Tips on posing a good question

In the future, please try to include all relevant information in the question, such as the approximate value of important parameters (like $T$).

For future reference, if the answer to part of your question can be found in the obvious page on Wikipedia, that is a sign that you haven't done enough research before asking. Please do more research before asking. This will help you ask a better question, and increase the likelihood that answers will be useful to you.

3 added 1514 characters in body
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2 Many more techniques.
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