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I've got a question regarding the A* search algorithm's implementation.

According to Wikipedia, one has to use a priority queue for retrieving the next node with the lowest f value, is it possible to skip to a node that is not a direct descendant of the current node?

For example:
Say we start with node S (set f=0), then add nodes A (with f=5) and B (with f=3).
B is obviously picked, then we add its descendant C (with f=4). Since the priority queue holds A(5) and C(4), C is now picked.
With C we encounter two additional nodes, D (with f=7) and E (with f=8).
Clearly A has the lowest f value in the queue, which means it should be picked, however, it does not have a direct connection with C.

Is it possible to continue developing A even though it is not a direct descendant of C? or is it that D should be picked to develop.
Using a naive priority queue would choose A, is that fine?

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Yes, you move on with A. You always pick the element in the fringe that minimizes $h(x) = f(x) + g(x)$.

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