This is a rather strong claim, and therefore likely to be incorrect, but hear me out.
Firstly, when I talk of “computations”, I mean this in a broader sense than normally used, because I am including “infinite computers”, e.g. Turing machines that can perform computations not in a finite amount of steps, but infinite or even uncountable. e.g., a Turing machine that can check (using an uncountable number of computations for any subset of an uncountable $X$ whether it is open in $(X,T)$ is allowed.
This means my question is inherently a bit vague, because I don’t know a lot about infinite Turing machines, and I am not sure how “computational complexity” is defined for such infinite Turing machines (and not sure if it has been studied at all).
But it seems to me that if you squint your eyes, many theorems in math can be seen as performing the role of “simplifying computation”:
Claim. Every mathematical definition gives a (possibly incomputable in finite time) algorithm.
Example. Definition: A function $X$ to $Y$ is continuous iff every open set in $Y$ has open preimage. This gives an algorithm: Check for each open set in $Y$ whether the preimage is open in $X$. (algorithm requires infinite computational time for uncountable spaces).
Many theorems can be seen as “simplifying computations”:
Some theorems turn incomputable algorithms into computable algorithms. For example, the algorithm that checks whether a function $f$ is made up of a composition of a database of other continuous functions, is computationally simpler than the algorithm induced by the definition of continuity (though can only verify, and only for a subset of functions)
some theorems turn incomputable algorithms into still incomputable but “less complex” algorithms.
I’m gonna make a (largely unwarranted) generalization from this:
Bold and weakly substantiated claim. Every non-trivial theorem in mathematics can be seen as motivated by an attempt to reduce an algorithm (possibly requiring infinite computation) that answers questions $Q$, to a simpler algorithm that answers questions $Q$ or some subset thereof.
Do you think there is something to this? Are there a preexisting ideas about this?