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What does it mean when saying "we want $\Lambda$ to be $\tilde{O}(1)$ as a function of $M$"? (it appears on the top of page 12 of this paper)

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  • $\begingroup$ O-tilde omits log-bounded terms. $\endgroup$ – Juho Apr 27 '19 at 22:40
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The notation $\tilde{O}(f(n))$ is not completely standard and is usually defined as $\tilde{O}(f(n)) = O( f(n) \cdot \text{poly} \log f(n))$. The intuition is that it drops factors that are asymptotically not larger than a polylogarithm of the argument. For example, you can write $\tilde{O}(n^2)$ in place of $O(n^2 \frac{\log^3 n}{\log \log n})$.

That said, in your paper $\tilde{O}(f(n))$ seems to be used as a shorthand for $O( f(n) \cdot \text{poly} \log n)$, although I was not able to find a definition within the paper by quickly skimming it. This only differs from the previous definition when $f(n)$ is smaller than or larger than any polynomial.

In the specific sentence you are quoting, the authors want $\Lambda$ to be in $O(\text{poly} \log M)$.

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