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Why does Feistel encryption algorithm encode half block every time? What would happen if the entire block is encrypted in each step?

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You can't. Some of the block is used as the input to the F function, and the rest is modified. Those can't overlap. If you wanted to modify all of the block, there wouldn't be any input to the F function.

You might be interested in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feistel_cipher#Unbalanced_Feistel_cipher

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