I was wondering if virtualization technologies (VmWare, virtual box) are possible thanks to the theoretical existence, translated into practice, of the concept of universal turing machine or if the two are simply a coincidence. As far as I'm concerned they seem to me to be closely linked but I could be wrong.
Yes and no. Essentially because of the existence of universal Turing machines, you could write a VMWare-like system that used software to simulate the CPU. In reality, though, that would be unbearably slow, so it's not how these products actually work. Instead, they run the code directly on the CPU, in a carefully controlled and hardware-supported environment.