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Is there any specific terms or adjectives in graph theory to name this two situations?

  • Two vertices are non-adjacent (disjoint? I have seen that the term "disjoint" is rather used for paths with non-common vertices or edges).
  • Two connected non-adjacent vertices (the shortest path or paths connecting them have a lenght $> 1$).
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    $\begingroup$ For the first situation, I've only seen "non-adjacent", "nonadjacent", "non-neighbo[u]r[ing]". Larger groups of vertices, no pair of which are adjacent, are an "independent set" or "stable set". Some papers define "$u$ misses $v$" to mean $u$ is not adjacent to $v$. $\endgroup$ – j_random_hacker Aug 11 at 15:01
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You've exactly described the first situation, i.e. we indeed say that $u$ and $v$ are non-adjacent. For the second we do the same, but we want to also specify they are in the same component of $G$ which contains them if $G$ is not connected.

These are already simple and well-understood descriptions and there's nothing "more standard". However, you are also free to use your own definitions in your actual use case if it's worth it.

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