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Expanding on this question :

Why is Dijkstra's Algorithm more popular compared to Grassfire algorithm?

What are the differences between grassfire and BFS? I'm surprised grassfire (supposedly) has a complexity of only $O(|V|)$, whereas BFS has a complexity of $O(|V| + |E|)$.

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  • $\begingroup$ Quoting the answer to the linked question, "In grassfire the distances are constant." $\endgroup$ Sep 17 '19 at 14:15
  • $\begingroup$ @Yuval Filmus The distances in BFS are constant as well. $\endgroup$
    – J. Schmidt
    Sep 17 '19 at 14:42
  • $\begingroup$ "Grassfire is actually based on a small modification of BFS." $\endgroup$ Sep 17 '19 at 14:50
  • $\begingroup$ @Yuval Filmus I can read $\endgroup$
    – J. Schmidt
    Sep 17 '19 at 14:51
  • $\begingroup$ Grassfire runs in time $O(|V|)$ since a 2D grid has $|E| = \Theta(|V|)$. Grassfire (as described on Wikipedia) has only two passes, whereas BFS can have many iterations. $\endgroup$ Sep 17 '19 at 14:53
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Grassfire seems to be simply a BFS in a 2D grid graph. Since $|E| = \Theta(|V|)$ in a 2D grid graph, this results in a complexity of $O(|V| + |E|) = O(|V|)$.

See also Wikipedia's page on the similar grassfire transform (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grassfire_transform), a computation of the distance from some pixel(s) to the border of a region in an image, which can be used to yield descriptors such as the region's skeleton or medial axis.

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