Available data

Available to me is a set of points which can be represented as shown in image 1:

Original data

Also available to me is a non-continuous path derived from this data. It is not important how this non-continuous path is obtained. It is however important, that it roughly represents a curve I intent to approximate. This non-continuous path is shown in image 2:

Non-continuous path derived from original data


I want to approximate this data using a polynomial of either second or third degree. Examples of these approximations are shown in images 3, 4:

Fit curve to original data

Fit curve to non-continuous path

Problem / question

Now I am looking for a way to obtain the red curve. Some details confuse me, where my knowledge is likely to be simply lacking. For example, how to fit a polynomial, when technically what I require is not a function, at least not in this coordinate system, because there will be situations where an x value is being assigned two y values.

I thought of possibly using the ends of my path to define a new x-axis, but I consider this approach faulty. Another consideration are Splines.

How should I go about obtaining this red curve from the non-continuous path (preferred) or from original data? What sources should I look into?

Apologies if this is an already answered question which I suspect it might be. However I have been issuing search queries for this without success, hence my question.


You can try fitting a multi-dimensional polynomial regression. It seems that for your data, a two dimensional regression model should be fine: $$ (a)x^2 + (b)x + (c)y^2 + (d)y + (e)xy + (f) $$

In python for example, you can fit a proper model using:

import numpy as np
from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures

X = np.array([ [x0,y0], [x1,y1], ...  ])
poly = PolynomialFeatures(2)
poly = PolynomialFeatures(interaction_only=True)

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you, this offers me a nice starting point. $\endgroup$ – Mär Sep 19 '19 at 7:46
  • $\begingroup$ I ended up implementing Curve Global Approximation to fit a spline to these points. $\endgroup$ – Mär Dec 1 '19 at 16:53

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