So, what is the worst case for C++ "sort" function, when does it go to O(n^2) time? I know it's QuickSort, therefore, it's very fast in most cases, but it gets to O(n^2) in special cases. I've tried to figure it out via measurements, but I have trouble interpreting the results.
The worst case for the Quicksort algorithm depends how a pivot is chosen and it can range from $\Theta(n \log n)$ (if you choose the pivot to be the median) to $\Theta(n^2)$ (if the pivot is always a constant number of elements away from the minimum/maximum element).
That said, C++ standards do not mandate any particular implementation of the sort() function. So it is just a "coincidence" that your implementation happens to use Quicksort.
The answer to your question about the worst case depends on which C++ standard you are referring to. Before C++11, sort() was required to take "approximately $O(n \log n)$ comparisons on the average" (whatever "approximately" means) but, since no particular implementation is mandated, you'd have to look at the sources of the standard library you are using.
If you are referring to C++11 or later, then sort() is required to perform $O(n \log n)$ comparisons in the worst case (see Section 188.8.131.52). To be pedantic, you'd still need to inspect the implementation to know what the worst case is (I could imagine a conforming implementation that first checks whether the input array is any specific permutation (or class of permutations), and then sorts it in linear time).
To be even more pedantic: the standard mandates an asymptotic number of comparisons, so I'm not sure whether a sort() function with a running time of $O(2^n)$ (or some weird function of the input) would conform to the standard, as long as it only performs $O(n \log n)$ comparisons...