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I've been given the task of proving the statement in the title, which I found out it should be called the translational lemma by means of a padding argument; $f$, $t_1$ and $t_2$ are three nondecreasing time-constructible functions in $\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$.

After much effort, I think I have an idea of how and why such a technique would be useful in proving complexity related statements: in a sense it "shifts" the time complexity of one language (or a given machine deciding it) into the input length of the "padded" language (or the machine specifically designed to decide it), which in turn makes it simpler(?), as in less time-consuming w.r.t. its input length.

I get the usual proof for the statement $P = NP \implies EXP = NEXP$ as it is found at page 57 in the Arora-Barak book and in Wikipedia's page about the padding argument; however I'm unable to concretely apply it to the presented statement. My proof tries to mimic the proof cited above, but stops in the middle:

Suppose $L \in \textsf{TIME}(t_2(f(n))$, thus there is a DTM $M_{2, f}$ deciding it. Define the following language:

$L_{PAD} := \{\langle x \| \diamond^{t_2(f(|x|))} \rangle: x \in L\}$

I claim that $L_{PAD} \in \textsf{TIME}(t_2(|x|))$.

Proof: Define $M_2$: On input $y$

check if $y \equiv x \| \diamond^{t_2(f(|x|))}$ for some $x$ (Time: $O(|y|) \approx O(n + {t_2(f(|x|))})$)

if not, reject (Time: $O(1)$)

else simulate $M_{2, f}$ (Time: $O(t_2(f(|x|)))$)

At this point though, I feel that the conclusion is that $M_2$ decides $L_{PAD}$ in linear time, as all the steps done by it are upper bounded by at most $O(n + {t_2(f(|x|))})$. I just can't manage to keep $t_2$ in, let alone keeping it while getting rid of $f$. I can see I'm doing it wrong, but no idea why.

I'm looking for anything that would help me on the Web, but the only proofs by padding that I find are done on specific cases, where the functions are actually defined, instead of being just generic, nondecreasing, and time-constructible. The only document I found with the same exact statement is this one at page 14, but it just states it as a lemma without proving it.

Did I get the padding idea correctly? What am I missing?

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