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Apart from the start-up instructions, what other programs are stored in the ROM?

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  • $\begingroup$ ROM in this case being different than BIOS somehow? $\endgroup$ – CrossRoads Mar 6 '20 at 17:54
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, ROM being different from the BIOS $\endgroup$ – Drex Mar 6 '20 at 18:10
  • $\begingroup$ This question is very unclear. You can store anything you want in ROM, or you can store nothing in ROM. It depends on what you want to do. $\endgroup$ – Jörg W Mittag Mar 8 '20 at 9:09
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You store software in ROM for security, because it cannot be modified. Especially when your device’s operating system is updated, you want that to be controlled by software in ROM so you can detect fake or hacked software updates in a way that cannot be hacked.

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ROM is Read Only Memory. It is used to store data/instructions that need not/can not/should not be ever modified (or rarely modified, you can update your BIOS because it is modifiable, but it is rarely done).

Today it is often cheaper to have a CPU and a program to do all sorts of complex tasks than to create custom circuitry (slower, sure; but if that matters depends on exactly what is done). Thus ROM. And that applies to all sorts of things, including some devices; but as devices get more complex, changing said programming is often needed, thus all sort of "firmware" (loaded on startup into the device, not changed until next time).

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