# For given reduction f, can show "if f(x) in 4NAE then x in 3SAT", but not "if x is not in 3SAT then f(x) not in 4NAE"

Claim: $$3SAT \le_p 4NAE$$, where reduction $$f$$ is defined as such: given a 3CNF formula $$\varphi$$, add to each clause a new literal $$z$$ (where $$z$$ is same literal for each clause), and return new formula $$f(\varphi)$$.

It seemed pretty easy to show that $$\varphi\in 3SAT\Rightarrow f(\varphi)\in 4NAE$$:

• If $$\varphi \in 3SAT$$, then every clause in $$\varphi$$ contains at least one $$T$$ literal. In $$f(\varphi)$$, let the added literal $$z=F$$. Then every clause in $$f(\varphi)$$ contains at least one $$T$$ and one $$F$$ literal, so $$f(\varphi)\in 4NAE$$.

Here's where I'm confused: At first, I thought that if $$\varphi \notin 3SAT \Rightarrow f(\varphi) \notin 4NAE$$.

We know $$\varphi \notin 3SAT$$ iff any non-contradictory assignment of literals has at least one clause with all false values. However, assuming there is no clause in $$\varphi$$ containing all true literals, then if $$f(\varphi)$$ adds $$z=T$$ to each clause, wouldn't $$f(\varphi)$$ belong to $$4NAE$$?

On the other hand, I thought of this argument to show that $$f(\varphi)\in 4NAE \Rightarrow \varphi\in 3SAT$$:

• Suppose $$f(\varphi)\in 4NAE$$, where $$x_i$$ represents original literals in $$\varphi$$ and $$z$$ is added literal from reduction. Let $$Y$$ represent a satisfying assigment of $$f(\varphi)$$.

• If $$z=F$$, then for any clause $$(x_1 \vee x_2 \vee x_3 \vee z)$$ in $$f(\varphi)$$, we know that either $$x_1$$ or $$x_2$$ or $$x_3$$ had to be true. Thus, the original clause $$(x_1 \vee x_2 \vee x_3)$$ in $$\varphi$$ would evaluate as true, and so $$\varphi$$ contains satisfiable assignment.

• if $$z=T$$, then for any clause $$(x_1 \vee x_2 \vee x_3 \vee z)$$ in $$f(\varphi)$$, we know that either $$x_1$$ or $$x_2$$ or $$x_3$$ had to be false. Now define the assignment $$Y '$$ to be identical to $$Y$$ except with every literal negated, and remove all $$z$$'s. Then $$(\bar x_1 \vee \bar x_2 \vee \bar x_3)$$ contains at least one true literal. So $$Y'$$ is a satisfiable assignment of $$\varphi$$, and $$\varphi \in 3SAT$$.

Basic logic says if p then q should be equivalent to "if not q then not p". So obviously I'm making some mistakes or assumptions here. I just don't see where.

The error is in this paragraph:

We know $$\varphi \notin \mathsf{3SAT}$$ iff any non-contradictory assignment of literals has at least one clause with all false values. However, assuming there is no clause in $$𝜑$$ containing all true literals, then if $$𝑓(𝜑)$$ adds $$𝑧=𝑇$$ to each clause, wouldn't $$𝑓(𝜑)$$ belong to $$\mathsf{4NAE}$$?

Here's your argument, broken into steps:

1. Suppose $$\varphi \notin \mathsf{3SAT}$$. Thus, every assignment for $$\varphi$$ has at least one falsified clause.

2. Suppose there was some assignment in which each clause contains a falsified literal. Then $$f(\varphi) \in \mathsf{4NAE}$$, by choosing $$z=T$$.

I fail to see the contradiction here. Indeed, if there is some assignment in which each clause contains a falsified literal, then if you complement it, you get a satisfying assignment, as you show in your post. This means that if (1) holds, then (2) cannot possibly hold.

You argument is basically saying "what if I had an unsatisfiable $$\varphi$$ together with an assignment in which each clause contains a falsified literal". If such a $$\varphi$$ existed, then your reduction wouldn't have been sound. Fortunately, no such $$\varphi$$ exists. It's true that you have to rule out the existence of such $$\varphi$$, which you do by showing that if (2) holds then (1) doesn't hold.