Suppose I have two LL languages $L_1, L_2$, both describable by LL($k$) grammars for the same $k$, and regular language $R$. Which of the following are also LL languages, and can they be described by LL($k$) grammars?

  • $L_1 \cup L_2$ (union)
  • $L_1 \circ L_2$ (concatenation)
  • $L_1^*$ (Kleene star)
  • $L_1 \cap R$ (intersection with a regular language)

1 Answer 1


All of these (except possibly Kleene closure) are answered (in the negative) in Rosenkrantz & Stearns, Properties of Deterministic Top-Down Grammars, 1970.

For an example of a language whose Kleene closure is non-deterministic, see this answer by Hendrik Jan.

  • $\begingroup$ Ouch... I'll definitely read that for the proofs. $\endgroup$
    – Koz Ross
    Commented Sep 30, 2020 at 21:42
  • $\begingroup$ Actually, I might have misremembered the Kleene star closure. Rechecking. $\endgroup$
    – rici
    Commented Sep 30, 2020 at 21:44
  • $\begingroup$ Just in case, added another reference for Kleene star. $\endgroup$
    – rici
    Commented Sep 30, 2020 at 21:58

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