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This is the CSRankings output for logic and formal verification for the last 10 years, worldwide:

http://csrankings.org/#/index?log&world

For the International Conference on Computer Aided Verification (CAV), the results are more of a mixed bag, with 4 out of the top 10 highest impact universities (including the top spot) being in the US rather than Europe. For Logic in Computer Science (LICS), the highest impact universities are almost exclusively in Europe. Beyond the top 10, rankings are mostly filled with European universities for both publications.

For most other areas, the top 10 highest impact universiries are almost exclusively in the US (if not top 20 and beyond).

I am curious to know why that is. Why does most research for that particular area of Computer Science take place in Europe, whereas most other research takes place in the US?

It is possible that the premise of this question is false and maybe I am not using the correct tool or metrics. However, my general research on this subject seems to verify (pun intended?) that this is indeed the case, with most well known centers being in Oxford, Paris, Warsaw, the Max Planck Institute etc. Also, I am not implying anything about the quality of the research (for which I don't know anything about since I don't practice in that field) only that the quantity seems to be mostly centered in Europe.

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    $\begingroup$ The ranking here rates universities based on the number of publications in 2 selected venues. This could be a reasonable method to measure "excellence" in a certain topic. (though I think even that is questionable, as scientists in the same field usually don't fully agree on what the top journals are) But it is a terrible method for measuring "most" research, as most research is not published in 2 selected venues. In other words, this ranking is not useful to measure quantity. As for the why... well why not? $\endgroup$ – Discrete lizard Oct 30 '20 at 10:35
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    $\begingroup$ It is definitely true that "Theory A" is practiced in North American more than in Europe, and for "Theory B", the situation is vice versa. Similarly, algebraic complexity theory is practiced a lot more in India than anywhere else. It's a matter of tradition – students pursue their advisors' research areas. $\endgroup$ – Yuval Filmus Oct 30 '20 at 12:03

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