# optimizing the calculation of $\sum^n_{k=2} p(\Omega(k))\Omega(k)$

I want to optimize an algoritm for calculating $$g(n)=\sum^n_{k=2} p(\Omega(k))\Omega(k)$$ where $$p(n) = \begin{cases} 1 &\text{if n is odd} \\ -1 &\text{if n is even} \end{cases}$$ and $$\Omega(n)$$ is the prime factor counting function or more exactly, I want to optimize calculating all it's values up to $$n$$
my current best try is

def Omega(k):
Factor = 0
b=1
while(k>1):
b +=1
if (k % b == 0):
while k % b == 0:
k /= b
Factor += 1
return Factor
sum = 0
for i in range(n)
w = Omega(i)
sum += ((w%2)*2-1)*w
#using it


First, I am trying to calculate the current algorithm's computational complexity. we calculate $$\Omega(k) ~~n$$ times, I haven't managed to calculate $$\Omega(k)$$'s computational complexity but it seems to be $$O(\sqrt k \log k)$$ thus, I think the entire program is $$O(n^{1.5} \log n)$$.
Am I correct?
Can any of you help optimize my algoritm?
Note: Is this the correct exchange for this question?
Ideas:
1.Calculating $$\Omega$$ less,$$\Omega$$ is an Completely Additive function, i.e. for any $$a,b$$, $$\Omega(ab)=\Omega(a)+\Omega(b)$$, I've tried to use this to optimize the calculation, but have not managed to.
The reason I'm interested in this is to graph the function, My current code is the first thing that went into my head, i.e, very nonoptimal.
This function is related to Liouville function.

• If you calculate Phi(k) for every k, that shows you haven't thought about this one bit. There is no need to find for example all integers with exactly two prime factors if you only need to know how many there are. – gnasher729 Jan 6 at 14:23
• What programming competition is this coming from? – gnasher729 Jan 6 at 14:24
• This isn't coming from a programming competition, I am just interested in this function. also, $\Omega(4)= 2 = 1+1 = \Omega(2)+\Omega(2)$, am I missing something? – razivo Jan 6 at 14:28
• I've edited in the reason I'm interested in this. – razivo Jan 6 at 14:49
• I'm calculating every $g(k)$ for every $k$ because this is what I need to graph it – razivo Jan 6 at 15:38

### Algorithm in the question

Although it is correct, it is rather slow. In the function Omega(k), b goes from 1 to the largest prime divisor of $$k$$, which is of order $$\dfrac {\pi^2n} {12\,\log n}$$ on average for $$1 \le k \le n$$ as mentioned by the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. So, the running time of computing $$g(n)$$ is $$O(\dfrac {n^2}{\log n})$$. It takes more than an hour to compute $$g(10^6)$$ on my computer.

### A Faster Algorithm

Instead of computing directly the number of prime factors of each number $$k$$, we can add 1 to $$\Omega(k)$$ whenever $$k$$ is a multiple of a power of $$p$$ for all primes $$p$$. For example, since 72 is a multiple of 2, 4, 8, 3 and 9 but no other powers of primes, we will get $$\Omega(72)=(1+1+1)+(1+1)=5.$$

Here is the improved algorithm.

def g(n):
# Omega[k], for k >= 1, is the total number of prime factors
# of k, honoring their multiplicity. Omega[0]=0 is ignored.
Omega = [0] * (n+1)
for k in range(2, n+1):
if Omega[k] == 0:  # i is a prime.
power = k
while power <= n:
m = power
while m <= n:
Omega[m] += 1
m += power
power *= k

return sum(map(lambda x: (x % 2 * 2 - 1) * x, Omega))


On average, each $$O(1)$$ number of operations will yield 1 prime factor. Thus, the running time of the algorithm above is $$O(1)\cdot O\left(\sum_{k=1}^n\Omega(k)\right)=O(n\log\log n),$$ where $$\log\log n$$ is the average of $$\Omega(i)$$ for $$1\le i\le n$$, as mentioned in Wikipedia. Since $$\log\log n$$ grows very slowly, this algorithm can be considered as an almost linear algorithm.

It took less than 1 second to run g(10^6) on my computer.

• g(10^6) should have been written as g(1000000) since 10^6=12 in Python. – John L. Jan 27 at 16:30
• Just determining all the primes no less than $n$ will need $O(n\log\log n)$ time. Furthermore, the hidden constant multipliers for both $O(n\log\log n)$ are within a factor of 2 to each other in all reasonable implementations. So my algorithm above should be optimal within a factor of 2, if we have to (implicitly) determine all the primes no less than $n$ during the algorithm. – John L. Jan 27 at 16:45