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Does the cpu interface with a memory controller to read the cache? What happens when data is not in the cache, a cache miss, does it automatically fetch the data?

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Information about on die structures are scarce for the intel CPUs. You can look at https://en.wikichip.org/wiki/amd/microarchitectures/zen#Memory_Controller for information on AMD CPUs. Especially the following images:

AMD CPU die

AMD CPU description

You have the actual die seen under a microscope for the Zen microarchitecture. You clearly see the L3 and L2 controllers. There is one L2 cache per core while there is a shared big L3 cache in the middle.

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