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I'm trying to understand what's the difference between $S=\emptyset$ and $S=\{\emptyset\}$
The diffenition that I found for $L_S=\{\langle M\rangle\ | L(M)\in S \}$
I understood that $S=\emptyset$ and $S=RE$ are trivial and
$S=\emptyset \Rightarrow L_\emptyset=\emptyset\in R$
$S=RE \Rightarrow L_{RE}=\Sigma^*\in R$

But can't understand what's going with $S=\emptyset$ and $S=\{\emptyset\}$

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Assume that all languages are over the alphabet $\Sigma$. What you have here is a bit of ambiguity in the meaning of $\emptyset$ (recall that the emptyset is defined w.r.t a universal set, and here $\emptyset$ is used w.r.t different universal sets). Indeed, $S = \{ \emptyset\}$ refers the set of languages containing only the empty language, that is, in this case, $\emptyset\subseteq \Sigma^*$. Also, $S = \emptyset$ refers to the empty set of languages, that is, in this case $\emptyset\subseteq 2^{\Sigma^*}$.

As you noted, if $S = \emptyset$, then $L_S = \{ \langle M\rangle: L(M)\in \emptyset\} = \emptyset \in \text{R}$. Now if $S = \{ \emptyset\}$, then $L_S = \{ \langle M\rangle: L(M)\in \{\emptyset\}\} = \{ \langle M\rangle: L(M) = \emptyset\} = E_{TM}$ which is known to be in $\text{coRE}\setminus \text{R}$.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you, I need to think a bit about it, just what do you mean by $E_{TM}$? $\endgroup$ – ChaosPredictor Jan 21 at 19:27
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    $\begingroup$ The language of all TMs with empty language ($\{ \langle M\rangle: L(M)=\emptyset\}$) is know by the name $E_{TM}$ ($E$ stands form empty, and $TM$ stands for turing machine) $\endgroup$ – Bader Abu Radi Jan 21 at 19:33
  • $\begingroup$ Sometimes they call it $EMPTY_{TM}$. I wrote it in case you want read about it. $\endgroup$ – Bader Abu Radi Jan 21 at 19:36
  • $\begingroup$ I want to check that I understood it on the right way. $\{ \langle M\rangle: L(M)\in \emptyset\}$ stands for none of the languages of any TM will be accepted and because of it $M$ even don't need to be run on any input $x$, we can say straight away $L=\emptyset$. On the other hand $\{ \langle M\rangle: L(M) = \emptyset\}$ means that TM should be run on all the inputs and if it accept even one $x$, $M$ will be rejected $\endgroup$ – ChaosPredictor Jan 21 at 22:06
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    $\begingroup$ You got it right. To be more precise: the language $\{ \langle M\rangle: L(M) \in \emptyset \}$ is the emptyset because for every TM $M$ the condition $L(M)\in \emptyset$ is not satisfied (the condition always evaluates to false). So a TM that decides the language immediately rejects all inputs (without even reading them). The language $\{ \langle M\rangle: L(M) = \emptyset \}$ is the language of all machines that do not accept any input ( they either reject or do no halt, on every input) - so you're right, a machine that accepts at least one input is not in the language. $\endgroup$ – Bader Abu Radi Jan 21 at 22:28

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