Earlier I was having a technical test when I stumbled across this question: Question

I know that probably in modern systems, the OS and the MMU is responsible for that. But the test was focused on Embedded Systems were no OS would be there, and the program will just compile directly and run immediately on the microcontroller.

I would love to know the answer, but I would also refer me to a thorough guide of this while compilation process, specially with reference to embedded microcontrollers.


  • $\begingroup$ in modern systems, the OS and the MMU [assign physical addresses to variables] this lumps together addresses of memory pages or segments with something conceptual (variable - gets assigned a logical address where such a qualification is useful). More often than not, the latter choices are considered parts of the first one. $\endgroup$
    – greybeard
    Jun 19 at 2:34
  • $\begingroup$ greybeard answer seems as good as any. This seems a weird question. Variables are often created at run time and the 4 tools you list are all pre-runtime. So things are necessarily more complicated. We need more data on the programming context and probably the language. For example, can your programming use recursion? $\endgroup$
    – babou
    Jun 19 at 10:05

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