Assume we have an oracle that tells, given a linear bounded automaton, if there exists an input on which it halts.
Can we then solve the real halting problem (i.e. decide if a given Turing machine halts on a given input)?
I would imagine yes. The emptiness problem for context-sensitive grammars is undecidable, presumably by a reduction from the halting problem. Given the equivalence between LBA and context-sensitive grammars, this implies that the same should hold for your problem too. I suggest you verify that this is correct by working through the proofs of these statements, to check that they indeed give an explicit reduction from the halting problem; assuming they do, you will have the answer to your question.
Yes, we can do that. The basic idea is that from an arbitrary Turing machine $M$ we can produce an LBA $C$ which checks whether its input codes a valid sequence of configurations for $M$ starting with the starting state and the empty tape, and ending in a halting state. Now we have that $C$ will accept some input if and only if $M$ halts on the empty input.