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Trying to get a fair understanding of our artificial immune systems. To do this I’ve been reviewing this paper, but the algorithm and mathematics is over my head, could someone explain the below to me in simple terms. Thank you

In the case of this paper, I’ve been able to understand that the system takes the IoT-Bot dataset. Then applies feature reduction through the use of the Information Gain algorithm so to remove features with a low ranking. And I understand the feature selection approach for this paper attempts to categorize signals as one of the following: safe, danger and PAMP.

But when it comes to how the below algorithm and mathematics actually work, I’m at a loss. Any help would be very appreciated.

enter image description here

https://i.stack.imgur.com/5IKcy.png

If you believe this question is inappropriately placed, please let me know where to post it and I'm happy to post it there instead. Or if this thread is missing details you believe are necessary, let me know and I'll add those.

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