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If there is a polynomial time algorithm for a decision problem $A$, which is m-reducible to 3SAT, and 3SAT is NP-complete, does this prove that P=NP?

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The problem $A = \emptyset$ is polytime reducible to 3SAT (using a reduction running in constant time), and can be solved in polynomial time.

More generally, any problem in P is polytime reducible to 3SAT and can be solved in polynomial time.

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