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Recently I'm studying 3SAT problem, which is a NP-complete problem. I feel that it's easy to find a boolean formula which is satisfiable,but how about boolean formulas which are unsatisfiable, namely 3-co-SAT problem. Can you help me provide some examples of 3-co-SAT?

The definition of 3SAT problem is supplemented here, which is quoted from the book Computational Theory.

3SAT = {$<\phi>|\phi$ is a satisfiable 3cnf-formula}

Then the definition of 3-co-SAT is

3-co-SAT = {$<\phi>|\phi$ is an unsatisfiable 3cnf-formula}

Is there any problem about the definition of the above sat, 3-co-sat problem?

Can you help me provide some examples of 3-co-SAT?

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The formula $$(x\vee y \vee z) \wedge (\overline{x}\vee y \vee z) \wedge(x\vee \overline{y} \vee z) \wedge(x\vee y \vee \overline{z}) \wedge(\overline{x}\vee \overline{y} \vee z) \wedge(\overline{x}\vee y \vee \overline{z}) \wedge(x\vee \overline{y} \vee \overline{z}) \wedge(\overline{x}\vee \overline{y} \vee \overline{z})$$ is in $3$-co-SAT.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you very much for your answer. It's easy to find that the formula of 3 variables. And how about 1 variables, 2 variables, 4 variables, 5 variables,...? $\endgroup$
    – lz9866
    Oct 14 at 7:27
  • $\begingroup$ For 1 variable, you could choose $(x\vee x \vee x) \wedge (\overline{x}\vee\overline{x}\vee \overline{x})$. A good way to find an unsatisfiable formula is to use a truth table. $\endgroup$
    – Nathaniel
    Oct 14 at 13:45
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  1. Pick any unsatisfiable CNF SAT instance.
  2. Transform the CNF to 3-SAT.
  3. The new instance is an element of 3-co-SAT.

Any unsatisfiable satisfiability instance undergoing the same 3-SAT CNF transformation is an example of 3-co-SAT.

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