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Suppose $L_1$ is reduces to $L_2$ in polynomial time, $L_1\leq_p^\mathsf{}L_2.$ we know that if $L_2$ is RE then $L_1$ is also RE and $L_2$ is REC then $L_1$ is also REC.

And also I know that if $L_1$ is REC then $L_2$ is RE and REC is false. Because by taking counterexample $L_1=\emptyset$ and $L_2=$halting problem. So see from this example and case fails to prove above postulation.

My first question is that or case could be true. I mean if $L_1$ is REC then $L_2$ is RE or REC$-$could it be true?

My second question "if if $L_1$ is RE then $L_2$ is also RE" $-$ could it be true? I don't want any details proof. I want counterexample for true and false case.

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If $L_1$ is recursive and $L_1 \le_p L_2$, they it is possible that $L_2$ is not recursively enumerable (and hence not recursive).

For example pick $L_1 = \emptyset$ and $L_2$ as the set of (a suitable encoding of) all Turing machines that do not halt on empty input. Clearly $L_2$ is not recursively enumerable. A possible Karp reduction from $L_1$ to $L_2$ is the constant function that returns (the encoding of) a Turing machine that immediately halts.

If $L_1$ is recursively enumerable and $L_1 \le_p L_2$ then it might be the case that $L_2$ is also recursively enumerable. For example pick $L_1 = L_2 = \emptyset$, a Karp reduction from $L_1$ to $L_2$ is the identity function. Notice that, in this example, $L_1$ is also recursive.

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  • $\begingroup$ How from L1 to L2 is the constant function,L1 isn't contain any string. You mean constant function is from element $\phi$ in $L_1$ to $L_2$ ,set of (a suitable encoding of) all Turing machines that do not halt on empty input? Am I right? $\endgroup$
    – Punia
    Oct 17 at 14:24
  • $\begingroup$ I never said that the function is from $L_1$ to $L_2$. The function is from $\Sigma^*$ to $\Sigma^*$, where $\Sigma$ is the alphabet of both $L_1$ and $L_2$. I said that the function is a Karp reduction from $L_1$ to $L_2$. A Karp-reduction from $L_1$ to $L_2$ is a polynomial-time computable total function $f : \Sigma^* \to \Sigma^*$ such that $x \in L_1 \iff f(x) \in L_2$. See the definition of Many-one reduction and of Karp reduction. $\endgroup$
    – Steven
    Oct 17 at 14:36
  • $\begingroup$ You mean constant function is from element ϕ in L1 to L2 ,set of (a suitable encoding of) all Turing machines that do not halt on empty input? Am I right? $\endgroup$
    – Punia
    Oct 17 at 14:40
  • $\begingroup$ No. The domain of the function is not $L_1$ and the codomain of the function is not $L_2$. In fact, the image of the function (a set with single element) is disjoint from $L_2$. $\endgroup$
    – Steven
    Oct 17 at 14:40
  • $\begingroup$ You mean constant function is from element ϕ in L1 to set of (a suitable encoding of) all Turing machines that do not halt on empty input in L2? Am I right? $\endgroup$
    – Punia
    Oct 17 at 14:42

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