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Actually, I know that there are many examples showing how this is a contex-free language, but I can't find any that show it isn't regular. I would appreciate if I could have a solution step by step for this case Show that {xy : x,y ∈ {a,b}*, |x| = |y|, x ≠ y} is not a regular language

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    $\begingroup$ Use the pumping lemma. Its basically almost single handedly the best tool to prove non-regularity $\endgroup$
    – nir shahar
    Oct 20 '21 at 13:47
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    $\begingroup$ As pointed out, proving that this language is not regular is an exercise in using the pumping lemma. This reference question should be helpful. $\endgroup$
    – mursalin
    Oct 20 '21 at 15:00
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You need to use the concept of pumping lemma.

  1. Define a pumping length, $p$

  2. Choose a word, $w\in L $ such that $ |w|\geq p$

  3. Split $w$ into three constituent parts, $x,y,z$ such that $y\neq\varepsilon$ (but $x$ and $z$ are allowed to $=\varepsilon$), $|xy|\leq p$, and $xy^kz$ is in your language $L$ for any $k \geq0$.

  4. Let's leave $p$ undefined as $p$ for this, and take the word $a^p b^p$ which satisfies the rules of the language

  5. $|w|=2p\geq p$ therefore the condition in step 2 is met

  6. Now we split up $w$. With the rules defined, $y$, the important bit, must be in the first $p$ characters of $w$, meaning that it must be made up entirely of $a$'s, so let's take $x=a$, $y = a^{p-1}$, $z=b^p$ (but it doesn't matter whether $y$ is $a^1$, or $a^p$, and $x=\varepsilon$ or $x=a^{p-1}$, the outcome is the same).

  7. Now for the important part - if we pump the string such that $xy^0z$, we get $a(a^{p-1})^0b^p=ab^p$ which you'll observe is $\notin L$.

  8. In fact, whatever we use as $k$ to pump $y$, we'll always end up with a scenario where $|x|\neq|y|$, and this would be the same whatever string you used from your language.

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