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For any $n$ and any $x$, if one implements a loop to calculate:

$$\sum_{i=0}^n x^i$$

What is time complexity of said loop if we assume $x^i$ to have time complexity of $O(i)$?

What confuses me is the fact that in each iteration, $i$ will have a different value.

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With your assumption that computing $x^i$ has $O(i)$ complexity, the iteration with some $i$ will have complexity of $O(i)$ too (it simply adds $x^i$ to the current sum). So, complexity of each iteration can be taken $ci$ for some $c$. Total complexity of all iterations:

$ \sum_{i=1}^{n} ci = cn(n+1)/2 $

which belongs to $O(n^2)$.

But for an efficient method, you can refer to the formula for sum of a geometric progression.

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  • $\begingroup$ So, because the $i$ in $O(i)$ of each iteration can vary, we take it as its worse, which is $i=n$, to then arrive at $O(ni)=O(n²)$? $\endgroup$
    – YzSun
    Nov 7 at 0:15
  • $\begingroup$ If we take the internal steps' complexity as a loose bound (far from precise), we may get the final total complexity as loose too. So, generally it is a better idea to not replace $i$ by $n$ (though, in this case, you would arrive at the same answer $O(n^2)$). $\endgroup$ Nov 7 at 6:16

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