I'll answer using the words instanceof (instead of inhabitant) and Class (instead of Type) since these are the terms in UML.
It seems to me that you are thinking about classes anb subclasses like sets of individuals and subsets of individuals. However, I would suggest, following , interpreting a class as a set of properties (e.g. Person is the set of properties of being Animal and being Rational), and a subclass as a superset of such properties (e.g. Child is the set of properties of Person, together the property of being underage). In some sense, we are used to say that a Child inherits all the properties of Person, and adds some additional properties (being underage).
A subtyping, then, only says which classes "inherits" which properties from which other classes (Child inherits from Person, Person inherits from Animal, etc). Do note that this is a relation among classes (e.g., sets of properties).
An instanceof, however, states which objects satisfies such properties (john is an instance of Child because it satisfies all the properties of Person plus being underage).
Saying that john is a subtype of Human sounds strange because, in essence, you are saying that john is a set of properties, whereas john is, as you were saying, a real world individual.
Saying that Cat is an instanceof Animal sounds strange too because, in essence, you are saying that (the concept of) Cat is a real world object satisfying the properties of Animal. The concept of Cat, as a set of Properties, inherits all the properties of Animal, but it does not satisfy them (i.e., the concept of Cat is not mortal).
If you like (first-order logic) formalism, again, following  you can formalize these as:
- Objects can be seen as logic constants: $John$, $Mary$, etc
- Classes can be seen as logic Predicates: $Person$, $Child$
- instanceof can be seen as a logic ground atom: $Person(John)$
- subtypeof can be seen as a logic constraint: $\forall x. Child(x) \rightarrow Person(x)$
 Olivé, A. (2007). Conceptual modeling of information systems. Springer Science & Business Media.