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This article from IBM (link) talks about Memory hierarchy in its actual hardware parts.

NUMA

While operating systems present memory to the running applications as a unified space, modern large systems have memory organized in a hierarchy, by core, chip, module, socket, node, and chassis/central processor complex (CPC) for example.

I suppose, just like

  • core maps to registers,
  • chip maps to per-cpu cache
  • module maps to shared cache

What would others (socket, node and CHC) map to?

ps: By mapping, I mean that the registers are inside the cpu core (the hardare); per-cpu cache is present inside the chip (the hardware); shared-cache is present inside the module(the hardware)

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    $\begingroup$ Can you articulate a more concrete question? I do not understand what you mean by "explains this mappings". It probably is also helpful to tell us your thoughts, tell us what research you have done and what resources you have read, summarize what you have found so far to make the question useful for others, and ask a specific question. $\endgroup$
    – D.W.
    Commented Nov 18, 2022 at 1:13
  • $\begingroup$ Cross-posted: stackoverflow.com/q/74480487/781723, cs.stackexchange.com/q/155509/755. Please do not post the same question on multiple sites. $\endgroup$
    – D.W.
    Commented Nov 18, 2022 at 1:14
  • $\begingroup$ What do you mean by core maps to registers? Can you give a definition of the mapping you have in mind? A few examples are not a substitute for a general definition. $\endgroup$
    – D.W.
    Commented Nov 18, 2022 at 6:19
  • $\begingroup$ See this description as informal, there is no need for a one-to-one correspondence. The key idea is that the OS abstracts away all the complexity and structuring of the hardware, allowing much easier software development. Also keep in mind that the memory that a process sees is not necessarily just RAM, but a combination of RAM and disk. $\endgroup$
    – user16034
    Commented Nov 18, 2022 at 9:52
  • $\begingroup$ this question makes no sense to me - especially "core maps to registers". What? $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 18, 2022 at 14:51

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