I am looking for an efficient way to perform nearest neighbor searches within a specified radius in a two-dimensional plane. According to Wikipedia, space-partitioning data structures, such as :
- k-d trees,
- cover trees,
- metric trees,
- locality-sensitive hashing,
- and bins,
are often used for organizing points in a multi-dimensional space and can provide O(log n) performance for search and insert operations. However, in my case, the points in the two-dimensional plane are moving at each iteration, so I need to update the tree accordingly. Rebuilding the tree from scratch at each iteration seems easier, but I would like to avoid it if possible because the points only move slightly between iterations.
I have read that k-d trees are not naturally balanced, which could be an issue in my case. R-trees, on the other hand, are better suited for storing rectangles. Bin algorithms, on the other hand, are easy to implement and provide near-linear search performance within local bins.
I am working on an autonomous agent simulation where 1,000,000 agents are rendered in the GPU, and the CPU is responsible for computing the next movement of each agent. Each agent is influenced by other agents within its line of sight, or in other words, other agents within a circular sector of angle θ and radius r.
Given these considerations, what would be the best algorithms for my use case?