I'm currently studying virtualization and while looking at hypervisors I realized that bare metal hypervisors are quite similar to operating systems.

So while from an application standpoint they are different, can an operating system theoretically be viewed as bare metal hypervisor?


7 Answers 7


I think you're right to notice this strong connection. At a high level, there is a strong similarity between a hypervisor and a microkernel operating system.

There are also some differences. Hypervisors are specialized to supporting virtual machines. Conventional operating systems are specialized to supporting user-mode applications. For instance, conventional operating systems often include many device drivers, support for scheduling of user-mode tasks, and other functionality that isn't relevant or needed for hosting virtual machines. Hypervisors tend to allocate/manage/schedule resources at a coarser granularity and using less sophisticated scheduling/allocation schemes.

  • 5
    $\begingroup$ One specific example of the difference in what services they provide is that a hypervisor normally just gives access to a chunk of block storage, for the guest OS to manage with a filesystem. A user-space process of course sees a filesystem with named files, not just linear block addresses. $\endgroup$ Jan 4, 2023 at 9:17
  • $\begingroup$ @PeterCordes and then you have exokernels! $\endgroup$
    – user253751
    Jan 4, 2023 at 23:59

The term "operating system" is actually a fairly loose one, and many arguments can be had about its definition. For instance, is Linux (the kernel) an operating system, or do you need GNU/Linux (the kernel plus some minimum set of services), or even Debian GNU/Linux (a complete user-ready environment running on top of those)? Does the answer change if the architecture is radically different - a highly-layered microkernel architecture vs a non-time-sharing mainframe OS, for instance?

A clearer definition can be made for some of the roles that system software plays. For instance, a "supervisor" is responsible for "supervising" running processes, managing their access to memory, storage, and other resources.

A "hypervisor" is so called because it "supervises supervisors" - it performs the same role as a traditional "supervisor", but at an additional layer of abstraction. The facilities needed by a virtualized or paravirtualized OS are similar to, but not quite the same as, those needed by an application process in a multitasking OS. So it is reasonable to say that "a hypervisor is a specialised type of supervisor", but not "any supervisor is also a hypervisor".

A "bare-metal hypervisor" may also provide other facilities beyond this "supervisor of supervisors" definition, so you could loosely call it "an operating system for running operating systems". Again, that makes the hypervisor a type of operating system, but does not make other operating systems hypervisors.


If you wanted a definition of an "operating system" it could be something like: a system of software that runs on a machine and manages its resources, providing an environment for other software to run within.

(Actual software packages that are marketed as operating systems would almost invariably contain a lot of ancillary stuff that isn't strictly part of this role, in addition to parts that can be viewed as fitting the actual definition of the term "operating system")

In that sense a bare metal hypervisor is in fact an operating system, if we accept that "other software" running within an operating system can include virtual machines.

But I would rather say that bare metal hypervisors are a specific subcategory of operating systems, not the other way around. Hypervisors specifically have functions to do with creating and managing virtual machines; operating systems in general do not necessarily have this specific functionality (although you can run virtual machines inside, e.g. Windows, it is other third-party software you'll need to install inside Windows that provides the hypervisor functionality, not the Windows operating system itself). So I would not view a "normal" operating system as a bare metal hypervisor.

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    $\begingroup$ Hypervisors specifically are designed to provide an environment that mimics bare metal, whereas "operating systems" are not. A bare metal program accesses the disk by twiddling registers on a SATA controller; a Windows program accesses the disk by calling ReadFile; a "hypervisor program" accesses the disk by twiddling what it thinks are registers on what it thinks is a SATA controller. $\endgroup$
    – user253751
    Jan 4, 2023 at 19:23
  • $\begingroup$ @user253751 That's mostly true, but "paravirtualisation" blurs that line somewhat: the OS explicitly asks for things from the hypervisor which the real bare metal would not provide. $\endgroup$
    – IMSoP
    Jan 4, 2023 at 19:55
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ indeed, and the fact it has its own name demonstrates it's a special optimization rather than the general rule. $\endgroup$
    – user253751
    Jan 4, 2023 at 20:03

I don't want to repeat what has already been written in other answers. Instead I will focus on two things: one, a comparison of features, and two, a pair of examples.

I hope you will see in the end that Operating Systems and Hypervisors are closely related and also that there is no real sharp boundary, but rather a sliding scale of "Hypervisory-ness".

Comparison of Operating Systems and Hypervisors

Similarities between Operating Systems and Hypervisors

There are some things which are similar between Operating Systems and Hypervisors: both of them provide isolation between and scheduling of "tasks" (processes in the case of the OS, VMs in the case of the Hypervisor). Both of them provide resource management, resource isolation, and resource virtualization. Both of them provide memory management. Both of them provide a storage abstraction: in the case of the OS, you have a hierarchical file system, in the case of the Hypervisor, you have images; you can think of images like very big files and you can think of the way images are bound to VMs as simple directories.

Differences between Operating Systems and Hypervisors

However, there are also important differences: Operating Systems manage and schedule a large number of small processes, whereas Hypervisors manage and schedule a small number of large VMs. Operating Systems manage a large number of small files in deep hierarchies, Hypervisors manage a small number of large images in flat (often single level) "directories".

Case studies

But the similarities between the two have not gone unnoticed.

You need to be able to manage your VMs somehow, start and stop them, create, configure, and delete them, download and upload them, etc. For these management / service tasks, most bare-metal Hypervisors have some traditional OS features as well such as a console, GUI, web server, etc. All of these need to be implemented by the hypervisor.

In addition, the hypervisor needs to be able to use the hardware of the host platform, at the very least network interfaces and storage, but for the service features possibly also keyboard, mouse, display, etc. For this, it needs drivers. On many platforms, the hypervisor will also be – at least partially – responsible for thermal management, for which it will again need drivers to read the temperature and fan speed sensors, control the fan controller, etc.

These are all things that an OS also needs. However, hardware vendors will typically only provide drivers for the most popular Operating Systems (e.g. Windows, macOS, Linux) but not Hypervisors (e.g. ESXi). And third-party or Open Source driver developers will also typically focus on systems with the largest installation base, which are again the popular OSs. As a result, driver support in hypervisors is often lagging behind the "big three" OSs, in availability (it takes longer for a driver to be available at all), features, performance, stability, reliability, and quality.

Think, for example, of the rapid evolution of storage solutions in the last years with ever-changing interfaces, protocols, APIs, and features between AHCI (SATA), SCSI (SAS, FiberChannel, iSCSI), NVMe (M.2, U.2, U.3, EDSFF), and more "exotic" ones such as Optane.


The developers of the Xen bare-metal hypervisor have recognized this and have come up with the following solution: in Xen, there is a Domain 0 (Dom0) ("Domain" is Xen's term for a VM), which is a VM with special privileges that can, for example, access hardware directly. This Dom0 runs a normal OS with some slight modifications. (Xen itself maintains support for Linux and there is partial support for NetBSD and OpenSolaris / Illumos.)

In this way, the Xen developers don't have to develop drivers for the tens of thousands of network cards, storage controllers, etc. and they don't have to develop a console, a terminal, a shell, a GUI, or a web server. All they need to do is to develop a way to pass devices from the Dom0 to the Xen Hypervisor.

This leads to some interesting questions: can you call Xen a Hypervisor if it cannot do its job independently without the help of the Dom0 (which is a full-blown OS)? What is the Hypervisor in Xen's case? Is it Xen? Is it the combination of Xen and the Dom0? Does that mean that a Hypervisor is an OS plus something extra?

It turns out this architecture leads not only to some awkward questions, it also leads to a slightly awkward and complicated design, where Dom0 runs on top of the Hypervisor (i.e. depending on the Hypervisor's services) while at the same time providing services to the Hypervisor (i.e. the Hypervisor depending on the Dom0's services).

Linux Tasks

Let's compare this to modern (para-)virtualization on Linux.

Many Operating Systems have several different types of "Scheduler Entities" which differ mostly in their "weight" and level of isolation. Most Operating Systems have some sort of concept of Processes (more heavyweight, but better isolated) and Threads (more lightweight, but less isolation, e.g. Threads of the same Process share their memory). Some Operating Systems have even more, e.g. Windows NT has Processes, Threads, and Fibers.

Linux has gone down a different route, though. When developers asked for native Kernel-scheduled Threads to be added to Linux because Processes were too heavyweight and slow, Linux's Lead Architect Linus Torvalds decreed: if Processes are too heavy, then the solution is not adding more complexity to the kernel by adding an additional type of Scheduler Entities (like most other OSs have done) but making the Processes lighter, thus fixing the root cause of the problem. As a result, unlike many other Unix-like Operating Systems which have both Processes and Threads in their kernels, Linux only has a single type of Kernel-Scheduled Entities (KSEs): Tasks.

Tasks are the only KSEs in Linux: on a fundamental level, there are no Processes nor Threads. Instead, when creating a Task, you can pass a set of flags which define which parts of the system are shared with the parent task and which aren't. So, by passing the appropriate set of flags, you can create a new process (by telling the OS that you don't want to share memory) or a new Thread (by telling the OS that you do want to share memory).

This "sharing" (and conversely isolation) is defined through Namespaces. They are actually much more sophisticated than a simple "share / don't share" flag mechanism. First off, there can be many Namespaces, and each Namespace can contain many Tasks. Secondly, there are many kinds of namespaces, not just for sharing memory: there are network namespaces, filesystem namespaces, process ID namespaces, user ID namespaces, namespaces for hostnames and name resolution, even time namespaces (allowing different Tasks to have different system clocks), etc. Thirdly, they can be nested.

Using only those two features, Tasks and Namespaces, a lot of features that exist in other OSs can be implemented:

  • Processes (Tasks which share everything except instruction pointer, stack, and memory),
  • Threads (Tasks which share everything except instruction pointer and stack),
  • chroot (Processes which have as the root of their filesystem namespace a sub-node of the parent namespace), or
  • FreeBSD jail like functionality, or
  • Solaris Zone like functionality.

The developers of OS-level Container solutions quickly realized that a group of Processes that share most of the system (except memory) with each other but none of the system with the rest of the Processes would act as an OS-level Container. The Linux Containers Project (aka LXC / LXD) uses this approach. Similarly, Application Containers can be built this way, too. Docker uses this approach.

And it didn't take long until an Israeli virtualization company named Qumranet realized: hey, wait a minute, if we have these features that allow us to build anything on a sliding scale from Threads which share everything to Containers which share nothing except the kernel … what if we just slightly extend this scale just a little bit further so that Tasks don't even share the kernel?

We get a Hypervisor with a world-class scheduler, memory management, and network stack, drivers for tens of thousands of devices, support for dozens of architectures, and an established ecosystem for remote configuration and management. And all of that practically for free!

The result of that realization is KVM, which essentially turns the Linux kernel into a bare-metal Hypervisor, but one built out of an existing OS.

Compared to Xen, this solves the "awkwardness" of having the Hypervisor depend on the privileged OS and at the same time having the privileged OS depend on the Hypervisor by effectively collapsing the two into one. It solves the driver problem of something like ESXi by simply being Linux, an OS which already has drivers for almost everything under the sun. It solves the problem of having to develop APIs, tools, servers, and infrastructure for (remote) administration, management, maintenance, and configuration, since all of those tools already exist for Linux.

Just imagine how much harder it would be to build something like the Proxmox web GUI if you first had to write (or port) your own web server, port Python (or PHP / Ruby / Node.JS / Java / …), database, etc. Or the fact that Proxmox disk images can be stored on half a dozen different network filesystems, Proxmox can authenticate users against half a dozen authentication providers, etc. None of this had to be developed, it already existed as part of the Linux ecosystem.

I don't know much about Hyper-V, but I believe it has a similar architecture with using the NT kernel as the Hypervisor kernel and thus getting access to NT drivers, libraries, and applications.


Hypervisors share many similarities with OSs. They can be regarded as a special kind of OS or they can be regarded as something different but closely related. Real-world implementations show the tight relation with Hypervisors relying on OSs and even OSs being used as Hypervisors.


In the simplest terms, an operating system manages the hardware on behalf of user-mode programs, where a hypervisor manages the hardware on behalf of a VM, itself pretending to be hardware.

An "operating system" traditionally consists of an "executive" or "kernel", a collection of utility programs, and at least one command shell.

It sounds like you're referring specifically to the kernel, which manages hardware on behalf of user processes. It handles hardware interrupts from devices and passes them off to drivers, and passes commands, usually issued via software interrupts, along to devices. It mediates communication between user processes and devices. It manages myriad blocks of memory owned by processes.

A hypervisor is simpler. It keeps track of which of the VMs owns which CPUs, which devices and what range of the memory address space. It passes hardware interrupts through to the appropriate VM where they're seen by the OS it hosts and handled by that OS' drivers, and intercepts software interrupts from the OSs on hosted VMs to the devices which that OS' VM owns. It manages a few blocks of memory on behalf of VMs.

This is oversimplified, but those are the principal differences.

They're similar in some ways, but a hypervisor is a lot thinner; it has fewer details to keep up with.


From what we've seen so far, we can confirm that there is no single answer.

The answer depends on the context in which you want to compare “operating system” to “hypervisor”, however for basic/conceptual understanding we could say:

  • Both are specialized programs to support and run programs;

  • Both orchestrate, access and execute the functionalities of a HW in a shared way for all the applications that are running in their workload;

  • Both orchestrate access to CPU, RAM, disks and other hardware resources, one or the other being able to support or not a device, due to the existence or not of a connection drive.

The question is:

  • hypervisor consists of a specialized program to orchestrate the resources of the hw to pseudo-computational virtual-computers, simulating HW computers, providing isolation of access to the resources of the HW in a shared way.

  • operating system consists of a specialized program to orchestrate hw resources for general purpose applications, which can even be virtualization programs, such as virtualbox, vmware-workstation, kvm, etc;

You might then ask, why should I use hypervisor instead of operating system?

Basically we can say (a very simple answer without much detail): sharing resources in a decentralized way for different purposes, ensuring that actions in an application do not affect actions in other applications, creating isolated environments.


Great conversation so far...

I spend a fair bit of time with hypervisors in edge devices, and the discussion about what is Type1 and Type2 has always fascinated me. Type1 is usually associated with 'bare metal' whereas Type2 is associated with 'operating system hypervisor'. Bare metal must be always better right?
But many people forget what was mentioned above, that with a bare metal hypervisor you need some form of serviceOS (Domain0) to manage the VIRTIO device backends as well as other constructs needed by the hypervisor. So is it really 'bare metal'?
If my guest needs a comms channel to route a request to serviceOS and then the serviceOS does the pass-thru to hardware (drivers exist in serviceOS) does that make my hypervisor a 'bare metal'?
Semantics and marketing.

What I see happening are three things:

  1. The silicon vendors are biasing their solutions towards setups where the virtual machine is hosted by a rich operating environment. Leading technology on this is VHE on ARM (virtualization host extensions). The entire SoC is geared towards fast transitions between exception levels (when needed). This silicon vendor bias is better for setups where there is an operating system hypervisor (hence the word 'host' in VHE)
  2. Complexity. VIRTIO is becoming more and more complex with more and more devices with extensive setups like graphics, audio, bluetooth etc. being virtualized, especially in the Android 13 world. This biases towards setups where guest is communicating with a rich host environment, sharing buffers etc.
    If I now need to maintain a Linux build as my VIRTIO support layer, who is doing that for me?
  3. Safety and security. Removing the need for a serviceOS by having a rich and safety-certified host operating environment gives me a simpler path to certification of my device.

All comments above are my own.


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