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If you go to the JSON spec page : https://www.json.org/json-en.html, then you'll see the language represented by some diagrams showing graphically what the language looks like. I wondered, does this kind of diagram has a name ?

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It's called a "syntax diagram", "syntax chart", or "railroad diagram".

Of these three, "syntax diagram" is the most common term. They're sometimes called "Pascal syntax diagrams" because the first time that most people saw them was in the 1973 Pascal report.

I can't find a definitive source to back this up, but it wouldn't surprise me if Niklaus Wirth invented them.

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