Is there a name for the class of software errors that arise from the fact that the software believes something wrong about the state of the world?
(Allow me a bit of anthropomorphization of software, for the sake of explanation.)
A temperature sensor correctly reads 19°C, but the software accesses its memory location in the wrong way and ends up reading 24°C.
This mismatch between the real value (19) and the believed value (24) would then kick-off some actions that are reasonable for 24°C, but not for 19°C.
The bug here is not that the wrong actions have been performed, because they are consistent with the state that that software believes to exist. The bug here is in the fact that the software formed a belief that does not match the reality. From there on other reasonable but wrong things happened (a classic case of ex falso quodlibet).
A network interface is up, but configured in a way that makes the operating system believe that it actually down.
Programs asking the OS "is the network working?" will get the wrong answer but will trust it and act accordingly (for example showing stale Web pages from the offline cache).
TOCTOU errors would be a subclass of this more generic class of errors (TOCTOU errors are due to timing, the errors in the class I'm talking about can be caused by any issue.)