I am searching the content of this topic but I am not sure what should be the content for this topic. This is relate to Computer Network. My topic is Physical layer services & hardware protocols.

What should be content for this topic.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I don't understand the question. If you don't know what your topic is, why are you interested in it? If someone told you to look it up, ask them for guidance. $\endgroup$ – Yuval Filmus Jan 18 '14 at 5:03
  • $\begingroup$ I am not getting content for this topic So I am asking this. $\endgroup$ – xrcwrn Jan 18 '14 at 5:06
  • $\begingroup$ Get the relevant buzzwords or introductory references from your teacher; this is not the place to rehash an entire field. $\endgroup$ – Raphael Jan 18 '14 at 12:17

Just a quick answer:

Hardware protocols are at the lowest level of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model and are usually a mix of

  • hardware specifications (cables, connectors, signals, ...)
  • how data is exchanged between the hardware devices (start of communication, end of communication, data exchange, flow of control, timings, error handling, ...)

Typical examples of hardware protocols are: serial port RS-232, Parallel port IEEE 1284, USB , Ethernet, bus protocols, ...

Physical layer services are those functions used to correctly implement and manage the communication between devices at the physical layer: e.g. open a port, convert bits to timed signals, change the bit-rate, close a port, send data, multiplexing, flush data, ...


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