# How can an artificial neural net change the sign of a weight?

My neural net is having trouble switching the sign of a weight. The issue is that the deltas applied to the weight are proportional to that weight, so when it gets closer to zero, the deltas become smaller and are never sufficient to get it past that point. I tried adding a momentum term with 5% of the previous iteration contributing to the current iteration without success.

In my example I have a very simple neural net with one input and one output and no hidden layer. The transfer function in the neural net is a sigmoid, and the function I am trying to learn is also a sigmoid. Specifically: $y = S(10 x - 5)$ where S is the sigmoid function. The neural net gets to a point where its internal weights are essentially generating a function very close to $y = S(2x + 0)$. At this point it gets stuck because the fitted function is sometimes above and sometimes below the desired function, but the weight on $x$ needs to go up and the weight on the constant term needs to go down. I ran it for 1,000 epochs and 100,000 epochs and it stays in the same place. The initial weights were 0.6 and 0.2, so it made improvements over that.

How can a net get over this hump? Should I not be scaling the weight delta by the weight value?

Here's the reference I'm using for computing the weights for back-propagation. I am using a learning rate of 0.05 and apply the deltas after each training example. The x-values (input) used in training are 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, ... 0.99, 1.00. I always play them in order.

Note: I originally posted this on stack overflow and was directed here.

• afaik Cross Validated is also pretty good for ML questions – vzn Mar 30 '14 at 17:13

Your problem stems from the fact that the equations in the link you provide refer to linear neural networks. Your network is not linear, as it has a sigmoid activation function. So you need to include its gradient in weights correction. Wikipedia explains how to do it pretty well. Here is an example Python script, which learns your target function in 1000 epochs achieving average error of order $10^{-3}$ in exactly the same conditions as you describe. Increasing the number of epochs makes the error smaller.

Note: this is NOT a recommended implementation of a neural network - just a demonstration script written on a whim.

import math

def sigmoid(x):
return 1.0 / (1.0 + math.exp(-x))

class Network:
def __init__(self, w, b):
self.w = w
self.b = b

def __call__(self, x):
return sigmoid(self.w * x + self.b)

def propagateError(self, x, error, output):
dEdW = error * output * (1 - output) * x
dEdB = error * output * (1 - output)

self.w += 0.05 * dEdW
self.b += 0.05 * dEdB

def target(x):
return sigmoid(10 * x - 5)

n = Network(0.6, 0.2)
# Training
for it in range(1000):
for i in range(100):
x = 1.0 * i / 100
output = n(x)
t = target(x)
error = t - output
n.propagateError(x, error, output)
# Testing
te = 0
for i in range(100):
x = 1.0 * i / 100
output = n(x)
t = target(x)
error = t - output
print("Desired:",t)
print("Actual:",output)
print("Error:",error)
te += error
print("---")

print("Average error:",te/100.0)


Output:

('Desired:', 0.0066928509242848554)
('Actual:', 0.012425919415559344)
('Error:', -0.005733068491274489)
---
('Desired:', 0.007391541344281971)
('Actual:', 0.013550016530277079)
('Error:', -0.006158475185995108)

...

('Desired:', 0.9918374288468401)
('Actual:', 0.9855607114050042)
('Error:', 0.006276717441835888)
---
('Desired:', 0.9926084586557181)
('Actual:', 0.9867575913715647)
('Error:', 0.005850867284153405)
---
('Average error:', -0.0013496485567271077)


For reference, I put together a very simple two-layer implementation. I looked at many articles but, this Wikipedia article was most useful for me. Here's my implementation in C#

using System;

class Program
{
static double Sigmoid(double x)
{
return 1.0 / (1.0 + Math.Exp(-x));
}

static double Target(double x)
{
return Sigmoid(-10 * Sigmoid(5 * x) + 7);
}

// Very simple 2-layer net with one input and one output node.
// Both use a Sigmoid transform.
// The target function is chosen to be a convolution of two sigmoids
// The output of the net is by definition a convolution of two sigmoids, so
// it should be possible to fit this function exactly.
static void Main(string[] args)
{
double w01 = 0.5; // Weight from constant term to layer 1 node
double w11 = 0.5; // Weight from input to layer 1 node
double w02 = 0.5; // Weight from constant term to layer 2 node
double w12 = 0.5; // Weight from layer 1 to layer 2

for (int epoch = 0; epoch < 1000; ++epoch)
{
double totalError2 = 0.0;
for (double x = 0.0; x <= 1.0; x += 0.01)
{
double t = Target(x);
double y1 = Sigmoid(x * w11 + w01);
double y2 = Sigmoid(y1 * w12 + w02);
double e = t  - y2;

totalError2 += e * e;

// Second Layer
double dEdV = e * y2 * (1 - y2);
w02 += dEdV;
w12 += y1 * dEdV;

// First Layer
dEdV = dEdV * w12 * y2 * (1-y2);
w01 += dEdV;
w11 += x * dEdV;
}
Console.WriteLine("Root Mean Error: {0:0.000} Weights: {1:0.000} {2:0.000} {3:0.000} {4:0.000}",
Math.Sqrt(totalError2/1000), w01, w11, w02, w12);
}
}
}