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In an article I am currently reading the grammar

S → SS | a | ε

is being described as canonical infinitely ambiguous. The infinitely ambiguous part I have no problem recognizing, but does "canonical" mean? Does it mean "typical", "standard example" etc.?

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I think your understanding the use of "canonical" here as "standard example" is correct; similarly, grammars for parenthesis matching or palindromes are canonical examples for context-free grammars, generally.

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