A Bloom filter makes it possible to efficiently keep track of whether various values have already been encountered during processing. When there are many data items then a Bloom filter can result in a significant memory saving over a hash table. The main feature of a Bloom filter, which it shares with a hash table, is that it always says "not new" if an item is not new, but there is a non-zero probability that an item will be flagged as "not new" even when it is new.
Is there an "anti-Bloom filter", which has the opposite behaviour?
In other words: is there an efficient data structure which says "new" if an item is new, but which might also say "new" for some items which are not new?
Keeping all the previously seen items (for instance, in a sorted linked list) satisfies the first requirement but may use a lot of memory. I am hoping it is also unnecessary, given the relaxed second requirement.
For those who prefer a more formal treatment, write $b(x) = 1$ if the Bloom filter thinks $x$ is new, $b(x) = 0$ otherwise, and write $n(x) = 1$ if $x$ really is new and $n(x) = 0$ otherwise.
Then $Pr[b(x) = 0 | n(x) = 0] = 1$; $Pr[b(x) = 0 | n(x) = 1] = \alpha$; $Pr[b(x) = 1 | n(x) = 0] = 0$; $Pr[b(x) = 1 | n(x) = 1] = 1 - \alpha$, for some $0 < \alpha < 1$.
I am asking: does an efficient data structure exist, implementing a function $b'$ with some $0 < \beta < 1$, such that $Pr[b'(x) = 0 | n(x) = 0] = \beta$; $Pr[b'(x) = 0 | n(x) = 1] = 0$; $Pr[b'(x) = 1 | n(x) = 0] = 1 - \beta$; $Pr[b'(x) = 1 | n(x) = 1] = 1$?
Edit: It seems this question has been asked before on StackExchange, as https://stackoverflow.com/questions/635728 and https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/questions/6596 with a range of answers from "can't be done" through "can be done, at some cost" to "it is trivial to do, by reversing the values of $b$". It is not yet clear to me what the "right" answer is. What is clear is that an LRU caching scheme of some sort (such as the one suggested by Ilmari Karonen) works rather well, is easy to implement, and resulted in a 50% reduction in the time taken to run my code.