I would like to know how was counted 1 second in computers. I mean how machine can understand period of 1 second. Who and when resolved this problem, and more important how ?

  • $\begingroup$ Why should it worry about human time? $\endgroup$ – Raphael Nov 10 '14 at 12:12

Basically, the computer has a "clock". This is a chip that generates a pulse every fixed period of time, say, every 1 millisecond, generated usually via a crystal.

With sophisticated techniques of clock multiplying, one can get to higher (internal) clock rates. (see e.g., frequency divider and CPU multiplier)

Counting second (or any long enough time) is now simple - the computer can count the number of "clock ticks" to estimate the time that has passed. If the external clock signal has a pulse every 1 millisecond, then after $10^6$ such pulses, about 1 second has passes. This is not precise, because the computer takes some time to count each pulse, but such an impreciseness is order of magnitudes smaller than milliseconds.)

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