The most obvious (and commonly given) answer to this question is John McCarthy, but I have traced the first usage of this term to a 1955 paper, which McCarthy co-authored with Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon. Although McCarthy was the lead author and probably the main organizer of the 1956 Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, it could just as easily have been that one of these co-authors actually proposed the term "artificial intelligence". Does anyone know of any other evidence to suggest whose idea the actual term was? All of these individuals are now dead, but maybe some of their close associates or former students might be able to also shed light on the question.

  • $\begingroup$ That's a bit like asking, "who coined the term 'apple pie'?". Isn't it the obvious choice of words? Are/were there any competing notions? $\endgroup$
    – Raphael
    Jan 19, 2015 at 13:26
  • $\begingroup$ I wouldn't go that far. The term AI isn't that old. And yes, I have read that other names were proposed and not everyone was satisfied with the chosen term. $\endgroup$ Jan 19, 2015 at 14:19
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    $\begingroup$ That's true. Here is one source, but admittedly not very good: terminator.wikia.com/wiki/Artificial_intelligence I will try to dig up some more original sources. I remember reading about this contravention somewhere.... $\endgroup$ Jan 19, 2015 at 15:26
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    $\begingroup$ One other example, from an interview with Marvin Minsky: "Now, Newell and Simon in their Carnegie-Mellon and Rand places had similar ideas. The main goal of their work was to imitate thought; for some reason they decided to call it complex information processing. They didn't like the term AI really, but I think that was sort of justification for the labs and the way they got funded and the way they explained it to people." conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/107503/… $\endgroup$ Jan 19, 2015 at 15:47
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    $\begingroup$ Not just sci fi, also Turing's paper (1950). $\endgroup$ Jan 19, 2015 at 17:18

1 Answer 1


Based on my research, there is no conclusive answer as to who coined the term, although McCarthy can be credited with helping the term to find widespread acceptance within the computer science community. See "AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence" by Daniel Crevier (Published in 1993 by BasicBooks):

"Overcoming the resistance of some participants (Samuel felt that "artificial" sounded phony, and Newell and Simon persisted in calling their work "complex information processing" for years afterward), McCarthy persuaded the majority to go for "artificial intelligence." He lays no claim to having coined the phrase, and admits it may have been used casually beforehand. Yet nobody denies him the achievement of getting it widely accepted."

-- Daniel Crevier, p.50


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