An interesting definition can be found in an old survey article by J. Berstel and J. Sakarovitch
A plurisubsequential function is a finite union of subsequential functions having pairwise disjoint domains. A subsequential function is a function realized by a gsm equipped with an additional partial output function $\rho$ defined on the states of the gsm. ...1
The finite union with pairwise disjoint domains covers cases like above, where more than one output makes sense, but we know only later which. An reasonable implementation could first scan the input once, determine the relevant subsequential function, and then compute that function by a second scan over the input.
The survey proves that addition of one is a plurisequential functions if the digits of the number are given in low-ending order, but not if the digits are given in big-endian order. So the observation from the question about the reverse direction is correct.
Interesting, J. Berstel also wrote a book which contains an answer to the question whether it is possible to relax the restrictions for DFA with output such that it matches expressiveness of NFA with unique output. From
J. Berstel, Transductions and context-free languages Chapter IV, 5 Bimachines
Definition A bimachine $\mathfrak B = \langle Q, q_-, P, p_−, \gamma\rangle$ over $A$ and $B$ is composed of two finite sets of states $Q,P$, two initial states $q_− \in Q$, $p_− \in P$, of two partial next state functions $Q \times A \to Q$ and $A \times P \to P$ denoted by dots, and a partial output function $\gamma : Q \times A \times P \to B^∗$.
The output of such a machine is naturally partitioned into as many parts as the input has symbols, some of these parts can be empty. To compute the $i$-th part, $Q$ processes the first $i-1$ input symbols forward, $P$ processes the last $n-i-1$ input symbols backward, and $\gamma$ computes the output from the $i$-th input symbol $a$ and the current states $q$ and $p$ of $Q$ and $P$ as $\gamma(q,a,p)$.
A partial function is rational if and only if it is realized by a bimachine. Bimachines were introduced by Schützenberger in 1961. In 2006, J. Rhodes organized a P vs NP Workshop, and where Pedro V. Silva gave an introduction to bimachines.
A bimachine has only a finite number of states and is deterministic, but in general it needs $O(n)$ forward and backward scans over the input. The plurisubsequential functions (or slight extensions of this idea) are attractive, because they only need two forward scans over the input.
1 ... If a computation in the gsm ends in some state, then the word associated with that state by the function $\rho$ is concatenated at the end of the output, provided p is defined for this state. Otherwise, it indicates that the computation is unsuccessful, and therefore that the function realized by this transducer is undefined for the given input.