I stumbled across this paper from Ball et al. In their paper they assign specific values to the edges of a graph. When the graph is traversed, or lets call it executed (since they talk about control flow graphs of programs), these values are summed up. Afterwards they are able to reconstruct the executed path from the sum of the values of the traversed edges.
For my research problem, I can not instrument edges, but vertices. To optimize vertex instrumentation I found a great paper from Knuth. However, I can not find a publication about determining vertex values that can be used in a manner as the edge values from the Ball paper.
Does anyone know about an algorithm to fulfill my task?