I am afraid the phrasing of the question misled me (though I did know
better) in first seeing model theory as applying to any two arbitrary
mathematical structures, and being the study of homomorphisms of
Actually this is wrong. Model Theory already contains the idea of
syntax and semantics, more or less as I define it below. It studies
theories, which are sets of sentences in a formal language, and
models which are interpretation of these sentences in abstract
mathematical structures. This is close to what I call language
below, and I guess this is also close to what the author of the question calls
So the proper answer to the question is that even model theory has a
concept of syntax and semantics, where syntax is a theory, i.e. a
formal representation structure such as a universal algebra, and
semantics is an interpretation (i.e. a morphism) in some abstract
Hence the "duality syntax/semantic" is already present in model
theory. There is nothing new on that side.
However, what may make a difference is the understanding of the word
language, as it could be interpreted as going beyond what is usually
concerned by the syntactic algebras usually addressed by model theory.
Actually, the question does not define the word language, and it could
be formal languages, programming languages, natural languages, with
some unsaid understanding of what is intended.
So two possible answers could be:
model theory is the study of languages with their syntax and
semantics, and there is nothing to add, or
a language can be defined by an arbitrary syntactic definition
(meaning a computable structure) and a homomorphic(?) mapping in
some abstract mathematical structure. The question mark is because
I fear that the definition of the mapping may raise some issues.
The second view is possibly less formal, or less constrained. Whatever
the case, I am leaving below my initial answer (which corresponds to
the second view), since several of the issues it is addressing may
still be relevant and of interest to computer scientist, even though
the presentation may be debatable from the point of view of model
It does not bring anything new from a formal point of view, since the study of formal system that are considered in syntax already had to go all the way to Turing computability, in order to address the Entscheidungsproblem, and that is as far as we may hope to go in terms of syntax.
I may however help understanding some more practical issues.
Your comments are welcome, including suggestions to erase my former, more naive, though possibly more intuitive, answer.
The first section is the direct answer to the question. The other two
sections may be skipped. They are attempts to explore some examples or consequences, or some practical
aspects encountered by computer scientists, in particular in the
design of programming languages.
Syntax, semantics and languages
The view of the issue as expressed in the question is mainly "OK". My
main criticism though is that the reference to the concept of
language is critical, because directly related to the concept of
syntax, not separable from the concept of syntax.
As a consequence, there is something circular, kind of tautological,
about your statement. The question is why do we use this specific
terminology of "syntax and semantics" for some models, for some
homomorphically related pairs of structures, and not for others. Where
is the difference? And a correlated question is: what is a language?
Clearly there is no restriction on semantics: any topic/structure can
be the object/content of a discourse. Hence, the fundamental
distinction is to be looked for on the syntax side. My own
understanding is that what distinguishes such a homomorphic pair is
the domain of the homomorphism: the syntax structure has to be concrete and
concretely manipulatable. Basically a syntactic structure is a
finite collection of concrete objects, usually idealized as symbols,
and a finitely defined collection of rules to compose in diverse ways any unboundedly
finite number of copies of these symbols, and to transform such
compositions into others compositions. The word syntax comes from
'Ancient Greek: σύνταξις "coordination" from σύν syn, "together,"
and τάξις táxis, "an ordering"'.
Fundamentally, syntax is physical. The concept of symbol is only a
mean to abstract away the choice of physical instanciation of the
symbols as objects such as sounds, gestures, glyphs, objects, stones
(which gave us the word calculus), electric or magnetic state,
presence and absence of a signal, etc., or composition of other
Hence, the theory of syntax is essentially what is better known as the
theory of computation, which is the study of rule based manipulation
of symbols. Whatever we express, transmit, receive, compute, memorize,
analyze, is processed through some syntactic symbolic representation.
But what we are interested in is not the symbolic representations, but
some semantic concepts or objects (possibly themselves physical) that are
intended to be represented by the symbolic compositions at hand. And
the correspondence is defined by the semantic homomorphism into its
Then, in the most general acceptation of the word, a language is the
association of a syntax structure and a semantic structure through a
homomorphic mapping. Or to state it in the terms of the question, it
is a pair of structures such that one is a model of the other, with
the additional requirement that the latter be a syntactic structure.
But, in order to give such a definition, you must first define what
is a syntactic structure. And that definition stands on its own,
independently of the concepts of language or semantics: Syntax
is the study of finitely defined manipulations (including transmission
and memorization) of unboundedly finite compositions of copies of a
finite set of symbols. Ot in simpler terms, syntax concerns the
definition, analysis and manipulation of representations. You may
read computation theory and information theory.
This is in agreement with the concept of homomorphism: the meaning of
the whole is derived from the meaning of the parts. But this is a
meta-remark. I insist less on defining semantics since it seems that
any structure (that makes sense?) can play that role.
I do not know if the view of linguists on natural language is exactly
the same, or as precise regarding the homomorphic relation, but it
should not be too far from it. The concepts of syntax and semantics
arose from language analysis and logic, which I assume were the same
topic at some point in history (actually diverging pretty late, in the
19th century according to Wikipedia page on syntax). Still, it seems
that some modern linguists follow somewhat similar views "since they regard syntax to be the study of an abstract formal system".
The point is that most mathematical domains, abstract concepts, and
other objects of discourse generally elude us, and can only be
contemplated and dealt with through mechanisms to represent them and
(some of) theirs values, i.e. through syntactic representation. In its
simplest form, it can be a pointing finger to represent a direction.
The main characteristic of a syntactic domain is that it is a concrete
representation, finitely defined through some formal system such as
the formal languages dear to computer scientists. But these syntactic
domains, which are very precisely the domain of computation, i.e. of
syntactic transformations, are very limited, as we learn from the
study of computability. For example, they are denumerable, while many
abstract domains we are interested in are not denumerable.
As a consequence, it is often the case that syntax can only represent
a small part of the mathematical domains we study. This is typically
the case for real numbers, almost all of which do not have a (finite)
syntactic representation, the others being the computable reals.
Choosing a data structure to represent the values of some abstract
domain we wish to compute with is just finding an appropriate syntax,
for your semantic problem, whether to express some conceptual semantic
derivation (computation) or to have simpler relation with semantics (semantic morphism),
or to optimize some aspect of communication and memorization
(space. speed, reliability).
For users who want an example, computing the sum of XXVII and XCII, I
mean 11011 and 1011100, is just a manipulation of the digits to get the
representation of a number (119) that is the sum of the numbers
represented by the initial two representations. The positional
notation happens to be easier to manipulate, to be more economical in
space (number and variety of symbols), and to have a simpler way to
express the homomorphism. The syntax changes, the semantics is the
same, and in both correspond to languages to express natural numbers
(well, not quite for Roman numerals).
IMHO (but some of this may be a matter of individual perspective), if
syntax should be only what can be represented and manipulated,
semantics can be any mathematical domain, or more generally any
abstract domain of discourse, including the domains used for
syntax. Hence you can have a theory of syntax where you study
syntactic representation systems. Formal language theory is nothing
Note that the the idea of a syntac-semantic duality should not
induce the idea that there is some sort of symmetry between syntax and
Syntax and semantics in computer science practice
It is true that we often pretend to address semantic issues, for
example when defining formally the semantics of a programming language
$L$. But that may be seen as an abuse. What we really do is use a standard
language $S$ that is supposed to have an accepted semantics and define
the semantics of $L$ in terms of the semantics of $S$. The difficulty
is that we can never access semantics directly, but only through some
syntactic proxy, even when the semantics is itself syntactic in
nature. This is why we use metalanguages such as Backus-Naur Form (BNF).
There are however various mathematical techniques to define semantic
domains. Among these techniques, you have the definition of syntactic
models where the syntax (possibly up to quotient by some equivalence
relation) is its own model. Actually, one of the major contribution of
Dana Scott to computer science was to conceive non-syntactic models of
lambda-calculus which is (initially at least) a purely syntactic theory (see for example
Continuation Models for the Lambda Calculus With Constructors,
B. Petit (2012).
A characteristic of most mathematical theories is that they may have
many models, including non-standard models. "A non-standard model is a
model of a theory that is not isomorphic to the intended model (or
standard model)". That also applies to syntactic theories. Actually,
non-standard interpretation of languages is a very fruitful area of
research in computer science, related to abstract interpretation, type
analysis, flow analysis, partial evaluation and many other approaches
to program analysis. To take a very trivial, purely syntactic
example, a non-standard interpretation of a program can be a
pretty-printed version of that program. A type checker is usually an
abstract interpretation of the program.
As a consequence, it is clear that the chosen syntax may not capture,
express, all the properties of the intended semantic domain. However,
anything that is considered as syntactically correct must have some
associated semantics through the semantic morphism, even if it is some
special error value. But it is improper, though often done, to state
that the syntax is defined by a context-free grammars, and then
consider programs with undeclared variables as being incorrect. It
cannot be syntactically incorrect for such a reason, because CF
grammars cannot check variable declarations. And I would not know what
it means to be semantically incorrect, other than being possibly a
special error value of the semantic structure.
The dream of programming language designers or implementor is that any
program that can only fail, or that can fail in some specific way,
should be syntactically incorrect. Hence, they have been increasing
the descriptive power of syntax to include as much checking as
possible, limited only by computability constraints. This did lead to
the use of Turing complete formalisms, of which van Wijngaarden's
W-grammars are an example. But this is a pipe dream. Computability
theory tells us that semantic properties of syntactically expressed
functions cannot be checked syntactically, as soon as the language has
Turing power, which we usually expected in programming languages.
In practice, this checking for intrinsic correctness (i.e. independent
of problem specification), or for properties to be used, is often
performed in compilers (or in formal semantic definitions) by what is
called static semantics. Being purely computational, static semantics can be as well considered as part of the syntax.
In the case of programming languages, the semantic domain is a
computation domain. Given that we allow Turing complete formalisms to
express the syntax, it becomes possible for the syntax to express
completely the semantics. But developing this angle is getting far away
from the original question. Still, this is the main reason why the distinction between syntax and semantics is so difficult to make precise in programming languages. This may also be the reason why universal Turing machines are possible.
A last point is that defining the semantics as a structure that is a
model of the syntax may not be enough. It could be a model in several
different ways. So it is essential to include the morphism in the
description of the semantics. That is typically what is done with
denotational semantics of programming languages, and a lot of other
Note: This was rather complex and hard to write. If you are to
criticize it, I would appreciate explicit and precise comments. It
would also be useful to other users. Thank you.