Is there an easy way to see why NP is in EXPTIME? It seems to me a priori conceivable that there could be a problem which requires super-exponential time to solve, but whose solution could be verified in polynomial time.

  • $\begingroup$ In fact, ​ NP $\subseteq$ PSPACE . ​ ​ ​ ​ $\endgroup$
    – user12859
    Apr 22, 2016 at 4:19
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    – Raphael
    Apr 22, 2016 at 7:21

1 Answer 1


Any problem in NP is in EXPTIME because you can either use exponential time to try all possible certificates or to enumerate all possible computation paths of a nondeterministic machine.

More formally, there are two main definitions of NP. One is that a language $L$ is in NP iff there is a relation $R$ such that

  • there is a polynomial $p$ such that, for all $(x,y)\in R$, $|y|\leq p(|x|)$,
  • given the string $x\#y$, we can determine in time polynomial in $|x\#y|$ whether $(x,y)\in R$, and
  • $L = \{x\mid (x,y)\in R\}$.

So, if we have exponential time and we want to know if $x\in L$, we can just try all $|\Sigma|^{p(n)}$ possible values for~$y$ and see if $(x,y)\in R$ for any of those. That takes time $2^{O(p(n))}$, so $L\in\,$EXPTIME.

Alternatively, we can define NP as the set of languages decided by polynomial time nondeterministic Turing machines. In this case, suppose that $L$ is decided by machine $M$ in time $p(n)$ for some polynomial $p$, for inputs of length $n$. Then $M$ makes at most $p(|x|)$ nondeterministic choices while determining if $x\in L$. By examining $M$'s transition function, we can find a constant $k$ such that $M$ has at most $k$ nondeterministic choices at each step of the computation (independent of the input), so it has at most $k^{p(|x|)} = 2^{O(p(|x|))}$ different sequences of nondeterministic choices while reading input $x$. Given exponential time, we can simulate each of these possibilities one after another and see if any of them accepts.

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Strictly speaking, the polynomial in the second bullet needs to be chosen once and for all, it cannot depend on $x$ and $y$. ;) $\endgroup$ Apr 22, 2016 at 8:50
  • $\begingroup$ What exactly is the definition of EXPTIME? I recall it as $O(k^{|x|})$, but your answer seems to assume $O(k^{p(|x|)})$. It is not obvious that the extra polynomial can be included without making it a different complexity class. $\endgroup$
    – kasperd
    Apr 22, 2016 at 13:26
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    $\begingroup$ @kasperd According to Wikipedia, EXPTIME is defined to be the decision problems that can be solved in $O(k^{p(|x|)})$. $\endgroup$
    – tparker
    Apr 22, 2016 at 16:55

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