I get that one transistor can store a value of 1 or 0. That's not the problem. What I don't get is how the fact that a transistor represents a 0 can translate into logic? How do these transistors turn each other one or of? Is there a uniform pattern to the circuit? how do these electrical signals magically transform into mathematical equations? Is there a specific set of transistors that deal with addition? Another set for subtraction? How does the kernel transform this into programmable language? How the hell do these transistors know which pixels to colour and what to colour them with? WHAT VOODOO MAGIC IS THIS? I am pretty curious as to how this magical transformation happens, but I'm also pretty stupid, so please dumb it down a lot...
Most your questions are covered by the field of "Switching Circuits" (and more generally, "Circuits and Logic Design", which are both part of computer engineering.
Try to find a textbook on switching circuits: it will explain how to take transistors and create AND / OR / NOT gates out of them. Then find a book on logic design: it will explain how to use AND/OR/NOT gates to build more sophisticated logic primitives such as flip-flops and latches (as well as adders, subtractors, or even a CPU)
Then you will (hopefully) have more insight regarding how the low-level works to realize the high-level ideas.