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I get that one transistor can store a value of 1 or 0. That's not the problem. What I don't get is how the fact that a transistor represents a 0 can translate into logic? How do these transistors turn each other one or of? Is there a uniform pattern to the circuit? how do these electrical signals magically transform into mathematical equations? Is there a specific set of transistors that deal with addition? Another set for subtraction? How does the kernel transform this into programmable language? How the hell do these transistors know which pixels to colour and what to colour them with? WHAT VOODOO MAGIC IS THIS? I am pretty curious as to how this magical transformation happens, but I'm also pretty stupid, so please dumb it down a lot...

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    $\begingroup$ How quarks makes fermions, how fermions and leptons make atoms, now atoms make molecules, how molecules makes chemical reactions... How ink makes letters, how letters make words, how words make sentences, how sentences tells a story. Different abstraction levels, which different patterns and structures at each level. Choose a level : Like logical gates from discrete transistors, or arithmetic operators from gates, or assembly from the parsed source code... and study it. There is too much complexity to encompass it in a single level, as it is impossible to understand psycho. from quantum physic $\endgroup$ – TEMLIB May 14 '16 at 12:58
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Most your questions are covered by the field of "Switching Circuits" (and more generally, "Circuits and Logic Design", which are both part of computer engineering.

Try to find a textbook on switching circuits: it will explain how to take transistors and create AND / OR / NOT gates out of them. Then find a book on logic design: it will explain how to use AND/OR/NOT gates to build more sophisticated logic primitives such as flip-flops and latches (as well as adders, subtractors, or even a CPU)

Then you will (hopefully) have more insight regarding how the low-level works to realize the high-level ideas.

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