Bayesian Optimization is the classic example of meta-model driven optimization where new observations are used to train a Gaussian process that provides a clue to where to optimize next.
LEM (Learnable Evolution Models) are evolutionary models where rather than recombining observations (like GAs) a population is fit to a classifier to find out which areas are more promising (although the method itself has quite a lot of non-statistical operations on top of this).
I was looking for something simpler where the optimization is driven by a simple regression tree (sample from most promising leaf or through some bandit algorithm on the leaves). However I can't seem to find any reference on the subject. It must have been tried before.