You can use Xiaolin Wu algorithm, but the concept is not restricted to straight lines, it handles circles, ellipses, any kind of functions. Moreover this is concept of fast antialiasing, if you need some polyline you have to apply it for every segment. If you meant curves, these are locally flat segments, so this concept is still applicable.
The thin line might described $1px$ lines, but if you need thinner width (less than $1px$) the common algorithm that comes to mind is Gupta-Sproull, which is not that common due to computation time. The same is applicable here like in the Wu case, it is not limited to straight lines.
The idea of drawing lines (probably with Bresenham) and then blurring is more computationally expensive and weights are not normalised, which gives feeling of thicker lines.
The concepts described can easily be extended to thicker lines (using Bresenham and applying antialiasing to the outter layer) or even varying width lines (with Bresenham extension - the Murphy algorithm).
Techniques like MSAA or FXAA are too expensive, unless implemented on GPU with a lots of lines and no concern about perceptible width. After reading about Mathematica, it uses MLAA (Morphological Anti-Aliasing), graphics is rendered on GPU, also Mathematica's reference supports this statement merely by looking at de Moiré patterns.